What is it about?

Shenzhen has been established as the technology and innovation center in China. The study reviews its economic development and environmental change over the past four decades. Specifically, it tests whether environmental Kuznets curve relationship between haze as a proxy indicator of environmental condition and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita holds in Shenzhen.

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Why is it important?

China’s President Xi Jinping visited Shenzhen in October 2020 and called on Shenzhen to be a world-class technological and industrial innovation powerhouse. So, it is vital to understand how Shenzhen has evolved economically, environmentally, socially, and technologically over the past four decades before it can take on the next mission.


Writing this article was a great pleasure as our research team collaborated effectively and virtually due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Additionally, we found that Shenzhen still enjoyed a steady economic growth of around 6% increase in its GDP, reaching USD 429 billion in 2020 because it has a rather broad range of secondary and tertiary industries. Hong Kong, as emphasizing too much on tourism and its associated hospitality industries, suffered a contraction of 6.1% in its GDP to USD 349 billion while Macao, as a gambling-dependent economy, suffered a plunge of 56% in its GDP to USD 24.4 billion in 2020. So, it is the time that Hong Kong and Macao should rethink their strategic positions in order to improve their resilience towards economic shocks. Here are the additional thoughts: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1910218 .

Professor W.M. To
Macao Polytechnic University

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This page is a summary of: Economic and Environmental Changes in Shenzhen—A Technology Hub in Southern China, Sustainability, May 2021, MDPI AG, DOI: 10.3390/su13105545.
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