What is it about?

ABSTRACT: Permeability (hydraulic conductivity) is a measure of the ability of a porous medium to convey a single liquid or multiphase liquids through its body under a certain hydraulic gradient. In this study, the permeability was determined for the grain-size fractions and the layers of a glacial outwash aquifer and its aeration zone (northern Germany) using grain-size analysis and the Kozeny-Carman equation. The aquifer and the aeration zone are composed of unconsolidated sediments characterized by lateral and vertical heterogeneities. The sediments consist, primarily, of silts, sands and gravels, with a majority of sands and a variety of grain sizes. The permeability of the aquifer and the aeration zone ranges from 2.85 X 10-4 to 4.60 X 10-1 m/s, corresponding to the grain-size fractions, and from 4.02 X 10-6 to 3.35 X 10-2 m/s, corresponding to the layers. These ranges of permeability agree well with those obtained experimentally from pump tests and laboratory measurements. Several empirical equations correlating between various parameters, with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.65 to 1.0, were obtained. Keywords: glacial aquifers, grain-size distribution, Kozeny-Carman equation, permeability, porosity, specic surface area. FOR CITATIONS: Salem, H.S., 2001. Application of the Kozeny-Carman equation to permeability determination for a glacial outwash aquifer, using grain-size analysis. Energy Sources, 23(5) June: 461–473. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316284788_Application_of_the_Kozeny-Carman_Equation_to_Permeability_Determination_for_a_Glacial_Outwash_Aquifer_Using_Grain-size_Analysis

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Why is it important?

This paper is considerably important as it presents results of permeability determination, not from pump tests or from laboratory measurements, but from grain size distribution and the Kozeny-Carman equation for fractions of sediments and layers of glacial aquifers in northern Germany. This paper present several empirical equations, linking amongst various parameters and measures that can be successfully used for similar circumstances or other circumstances, depending on how to use them.


It was a great pleasure for the Author to achieve the results presented in this paper, so that research scientists and professional engineers can use them in different areas of geosciences, porous media characterization, and engineering. Though the Kozeny-Carman equation is complex, as it needs several parameters and measures to be introduced in the equation, the Author had made a great success to make the goals of this research achievable and its results available.

Prof. Dr. Hilmi S. Salem

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This page is a summary of: Application of the Kozeny-Carman Equation to Permeability Determination for a Glacial Outwash Aquifer, Using Grain-size Analysis, Energy Sources, June 2001, Taylor & Francis,
DOI: 10.1080/009083101300058480.
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