What is it about?

We derived the analytical form of the effective conductivity as a function of frequency caused by heterogeneity, where the local properties of the media are isotropic and independent of frequency. We use simulation and experiment data to validate our formulation and find that our form shows excellent agreement with experiments.

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Why is it important?

Determination of effective conductivity of heterogeneous media is of great importance in many fields of science and engineering. For instance, it is critical for battery research and application. Heterogeneity causes the effective conductivity to behave as a function of frequency under an alternating current (AC). The formulation that we derived has provided a fundamental understanding of the mechanism that determines the effective conductivity of materials.


The result provides a practical guidance on the interpretation and application of impedance and conductivity data. This can benefit a wide range of applications from battery to solid state devices and sensors.

Wei Lu
University of Michigan

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Frequency dependence of effective conductivity induced by spatial variance in isotropic heterogeneous media, Applied Physics Letters, January 2023, American Institute of Physics,
DOI: 10.1063/5.0133532.
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