What is it about?
Sediment deposition in dam-bound reservoirs has become a considerable and widely occurring problem, posing a serious challenge to the design of and completion of dams. The problem is particularly critical for smaller reservoirs lacking a bottom outlet system, as these frequently become completely silted-up. Foods, which involve the mixing of a massive saturated sediment layer with free surface water, occur predominantly during dam-break events that are coupled with silted-up reservoirs. Considering the complex phenomena generated by such events, the behavior of three phases must be considered: air, clear water (no sediment), and subtended by a saturated sediment level. A break in a silted-up dam results in the movement of dense sediment deposited in the reservoir and may lead to irreparable destruction and casualties. Infrastructure and agricultural areas located along the dam, downstream of the dam, or in the lower reaches of adjacent river basins may be buried under a large quantity of mud and debris flow. For instance, in January 2019, Brazil's Brumadinho dam-break released roughly 12 million cubic meters of iron, tailings and mudflows which destroyed houses, farms, inns, mine offices, and roads downstream from the dam. In the Brumadinho township, many agricultural areas were affected or totally destroyed, and at least 270 people died. Our study is novel in that it involved both experimental analysis and numerical verification of multi-laver shock wave characteristics, (e.g., water level, sediment depth, and wave celerity) in a situation where semi-circular obstacles were present. The overall methodology of this study contains six distinct stages that will be discussed in detail in the research paper. Various upstream sediment depths, which occupied 10%-80% of the reservoir's total depth, combined with the m downstream presence or absence of semi-circular obstacles of various cross-sections at a specified distance from a dam section, created 24 different scenarios. The experimental results were filmed using high-speed professional cameras. Experimental data, including water levels and sediment depths along the experimental flume, have been provided and can be used for validation in other studies. The numerical portion of the current research verified the 24 dam-break experimental scenarios via OpenFOAM soltware using two distinct methods: VOF (volume of fluid) and Eulerian. Laboratory records were rigorously compared with the predictions of both numerical methods.
Photo by Sadiq Nafee on Unsplash
Why is it important?
Interactions between reservoir water and the large volume of sediment stored in dam reservoirs strongly affect sediment layer motion and ﬂood propagation. In addition, structures and installations located in ﬂood-prone areas downstream from a dam may act as obstacles to a flood propagation following a dam-break, with potentially harmful consequences in terms of the collapse of remaining structures. The presence of such obstacles in the ﬂood plain adjoining the river may also inﬂuence flood characteristics, such as wave velocity and depths downstream from obstacles. Consequently, the accurate prediction of silted-up dam-break ﬂow behavior over natural terrain and bumpy downstream reaches is vital to prevent and mitigate catastrophic ﬂood disasters.
Read the Original
This page is a summary of: Downstream semi-circular obstacles' influence on floods arising from the failure of dams with different levels of reservoir silting, Physics of Fluids, January 2022, American Institute of Physics, DOI: 10.1063/5.0079791.
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