What is it about?

Nonlinear resonators have various stationary oscillation solutions that can be used in technological applications. In the presence of force noise, the oscillator can fluctuate around these solutions and even switch between them stochastically. It is important to quantify this effect by determining how much time the system spends, on average, in one solution before it switches. This, however, is surprisingly difficult. In our paper, we present several strategies and compare their performance and practical pros and cons.

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Why is it important?

Nonlinear resonators are considered for many future technology applications. In particular, the so-called Kerr parametric oscillator (KPO) could be used as the building block in novel hardware optimization solvers, termed "Ising machines". For such applications, it is crucial to have a clear and unambiguous definition of the stochastic switching time. Our work provides a basis for this definition.


The understanding of fluctuations in nonlinear systems is still progressing. We hope to use the know-how presented in this article as a basis for future investigations of complex nonlinear networks.

Alexander Eichler
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich

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This page is a summary of: Extracting the lifetime of a synthetic two-level system, Applied Physics Letters, October 2022, American Institute of Physics, DOI: 10.1063/5.0121595.
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