What is it about?

ABSTRACT: The conductivities of pore water and clays are important mechanisms in the process of electric-current conduction through porous media. The clay conductivity contributes effectively to the process of electric-current conduction, particularly when the medium is saturated with fresh water. In the present study, the conductivity of clays was investigated in relation to the formation resistivity factor and specific surface area. The formation resistivity factor is an important parameter in defining variations of the formation and pore-water resistivities. The apparent and intrinsic formation resistivity factors, along with other petrophysical and hydrophysical parameters, were determined from surface electric measurements and analyses of sediments and water samples for a glacial aquifer (northern Germany). The aquifer is saturated with fresh water and composed of unconsolidated sediments that consist primarily of silts, sands, and gravels, with a majority of sands and a small amount of clays. The sediments of the aquifer and the overlying layers are characterized by a variety of grain sizes and lateral and vertical heterogeneities. The ratio of the intrinsic formation resistivity factor to the apparent formation resistivity factor is a good measure in interpreting the nature of relationships among several parameters that govern the electric-current conduction and fluid flow through porous media. Empirical equations, with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.92 to 1.0, were obtained. Also, an equation that can be used to calculate clay resistivity from pure-water resistivity and formation resistivity factor (apparent and intrinsic) was obtained. FOR CITATIONS: SALEM, H.S., 2001. The influence of clay conductivity on electric measurements of glacial aquifers. Energy Sources, 23(3) April: 225–234. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00908310151133906 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245322449_The_Influence_of_Clay_Conductivity_on_Electric_Measurements_of_Glacial_Aquifers

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Why is it important?

This study is really important because it is one of a few that discusses and explains the mechanism of electric current conductivity (or resistivity to that matter) that affect the electric current conduction in porous media saturated with freshwater. It can be said the the presence of clays in a porous medium disturbs the mechanism of electric current and, hence, other physical parameters, such as the specific surface areas and the ionic double layer conductivity of the grains or particles composing that medium, should be considered to understand the mechanism of electric current conduction in porous media.


This paper, in particular, was/is of a special importance as it presents in front of research scientists (Physicists; chemists; chemical, petroleum, and water engineers; materials scientists; etc.) results of thorough investigations of the influence of clays on the process of electric current conduction in porous media saturated with freshwater. Such influence is much more evident when a porous medium is saturated with freshwater, meanwhile it is less evident and less effective when that medium is saturated with saline or brackish water. This paper presents equations that can be successfully applied in the investigations of clays and their influence on physical and chemical processes.

Prof. Dr. Hilmi S. Salem

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This page is a summary of: The Influence of Clay Conductivity on Electric Measurements of Glacial Aquifers, Energy Sources, April 2001, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/00908310151133906.
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