What is it about?

ABSTRACT: The vertical electric soundings (VES) technique has been effectively used for several purposes related to investigations of surface soils and shallow sediments. These include detection of subsurface lithology, structures, stratification, and dipping layers; evaluation of physical properties that govern fluid flow and electric-current conduction; delineation of aquifers; assessment of engineering-site properties (such as pore-water saturation and clay content); and mapping of various environmental problems (such as saline-water intrusion, groundwater contamination, and leachate transport through porous media). In this study, Schlumberger VES-measurements, along with borehole and experimental data, were employed to image laminations, layering, and lithology of surface soils and subsurface aeration and saturated zones of glacial sediments; and to model the electric resistivity and hydraulic conductivity variations with depth and lithology. It is shown that the VES-technique can provide a substantial improvement in the resolution of thin laminations within thick layers and can also provide a good assessment of the hydraulic conductivity, water flux, and water movement. Numerous references, dealing with a wide range of VES-applications for several purposes, were reviewed and cited in this study. FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S. 2001. Modeling of lithology and hydraulic conductivity of shallow sediments from resistivity measurements, using Schlumberger vertical electric soundings. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 23(7-August-September): 599–618. (Published by Taylor & Francis, USA). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00908310119202 and https://www.academia.edu/4718453/Modeling_of_Lithology_and_Hydraulic_Conductivity_of_Shallow_Sediments_from_Resistivity_Measurements_Using_Schlumberger_Vertical_Electric_Soundings

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in this paper, the Author obtained a model for the lithological components and layering down to a depth of approximately 75 m of glacial aquifers in northern Germany, using vertical electrical sounding measurements. Moreover, the Author obtained permeability values for the various layers through an empirical equation that he developed, for which he used the formation resistivity factor that requires the knowledge of the pore resistivity and bulk resistivity for each of the layers delineated and modelled.


The equations obtained and presented in this paper makes this paper remarkable, which are refereed to bu other research scientists, as Salem Equations or Salem Formulas that have been applied and used for other studies to determine geophysical and hydrogeological parameters of groundwater aquifers and engineering and environmental sites.

Prof. Dr. Hilmi S. Salem

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This page is a summary of: Modelling of Lithology and Hydraulic Conductivity of Shallow Sediments from Resistivity Measurements Using Schlumberger Vertical Electric Soundings, Energy Sources, August 2001, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/00908310119202.
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