What is it about?

With media hype surrounding effects of cannabis for medical symptoms, there is understandably considerable expectations that this "treatment" will work to alleviate medical symptoms. Further, because of the system of regulation and distribution of cannabis for medical symptoms, there are few placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, expectancy becomes an important consideration in clinical trial outcomes for cannabis. We have developed the first longitudinally validated measure of expectancies for cannabis used for medical symptoms. The questionnaire was developed for a randomized clinical trial of the effect of state cannabis registration (SCR) card ownership on symptoms of pain, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in adults (N = 269 across six questionnaire administrations).

Featured Image

Why is it important?

Commercially available cannabis is now widely used to self-treat medical symptoms, despite lack of controlled trial data demonstrating efficacy. Beliefs about the effects of cannabis have not been assessed systematically in trials of cannabis for medical symptoms. Our questionnaire, which measures beliefs about the effects of cannabis on medical symptoms, will help researchers and clinicians understand how these beliefs impact the perceived effects of cannabis on various symptoms.


Anyone running a clinical trial assessing effects of cannabis on medical symptoms should consider expectancies, which is a critically important part of cannabis research.

Jodi Gilman
Harvard Medical School

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: The Cannabis Effects Expectancy Questionnaire–Medical (CEEQ-M): Preliminary psychometric properties and longitudinal validation within a clinical trial., Psychological Assessment, June 2023, American Psychological Association (APA),
DOI: 10.1037/pas0001244.
You can read the full text:



The following have contributed to this page