Current affiliation: Aalto UniversitySubject: EnergyPrimary location: Finland
Published in:Energy & Environmental SciencePublication date:2010-01-01
Degradation and stability is a key issue for nanostructured dye solar cells. This paper gives a comprehensive review on the issues involved.
Published in:Physical Chemistry Chemical PhysicsPublication date:2013-01-01
Published in:Physical Chemistry Chemical PhysicsPublication date:2014-01-01
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2012-06-26
Integration of energy, climate, and economic policy
Published in:RSC AdvancesPublication date:2012-01-01
We report a new energy conversion technology joining electrochemical and physical principles. This technology can realize the fuel cell function bu...
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2011-07-01
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2013-11-01
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2012-12-01
Published in:Journal of Materials Chemistry APublication date:2014-08-28
An ITO free, highly conductive PET foil is fabricated by depositing aqueous single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) ink that exhibits remarkable dura...
Published in:Electrochimica ActaPublication date:2013-11-01
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2013-10-24
EV smart charging
This article investigates charging strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) as part of the energy system. The objective was to increa...
Published in:Energy PolicyPublication date:2006-01-01
Published in:Energy PolicyPublication date:2006-11-01
The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetrat...
Published in:Energy & Environmental SciencePublication date:2015-01-01
The present study combines model experiments with numerical modeling to determine exactly how little catalyst is needed in a solar-hydrogen cell.
Published in:2013 IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE)Publication date:2013-08-01
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2015-01-19
Clean energy systems
Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as solar and wind are interesting mainstream energy options Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of el...
WIREs Energy and Environment
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1994-01-01
Low energy building technology has opened novel opportunities in reducing the energy use in buildings. To approach extreme low energy levels and ev...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2009-10-25
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2008-01-01
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2013-12-01
Published in:Energy Conversion and ManagementPublication date:2012-11-01
Large-scale renewable electricity schemes (RES) for urban areas are investigated here with emphasis on RES integration and interfacing with the ene...
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2015-01-01
Here's the selected papers from Nanoenergy 2014 conference held at UCL, London.
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2007-02-01
In this paper, the effects of a high level of grid connected PV in the middle voltage distribution network have been analyzed. The emphasis is put ...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2006-01-01
Published in:Wind EnergyPublication date:2005-01-01
In this work the effects of energy storage to reduce wind power fluctuations are investigated. Integration of the energy storage with wind power is...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2000-03-01
Multifunctional solar facades consisting of a transparent window and an opaque photovoltaic section are analyzed and optimized. Employing numerical...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2011-08-09
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2014-06-01
PV and wind power business show a declining ability to invest in new production
The growth prospects of new energy business has dropped to 15–25%/y...
Published in:World Futures ReviewPublication date:2013-09-01
An Interview with Aalto University Physicist Peter Lund
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2009-02-01
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2014-03-05
Special issue from Nanosmat conference
The papers in this IJER Special Issue on nanotechnology for energy applications deal with solar cells, light...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2011-03-28
Published in:Ecological EconomicsPublication date:2007-09-01
The cost impacts from the European emission trading system (ETS) on energy-intensive manufacturing industries have been investigated. The effects c...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2011-01-01
Published in:Energy Research & Social SciencePublication date:2015-03-01
A high degree of inclusion in policy processes and outcomes enhances niche development and renewal of energy policies. The role of the government i...
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2013-12-18
The field of energy and environment is defined by its cross-disciplinary basis.
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2010-04-01
Published in:IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental SciencePublication date:2009-02-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2006-11-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2007-11-01
The effect of repeated temperature variations on the performance of both fresh and aged dye-sensitized solar cells with liquid and semi- solid elec...
Fuel cell based energy systems are a potential large-scale future energy option. The key challenge for fuel cells is to reach a market breakthrough...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2009-11-01
At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With increasing inte...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2010-03-01
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2012-01-01
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2014-09-01
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2014-10-01
We report here a highly conductive flexible fiber based substrate in dye-sensitized solar cell which is fabricated by coating a low temperature si...
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2013-06-01
Recent scientific and technological advancements have provided a wealth of new information about solid oxide-molten salt composite materials and mu...
Published in:Technological Forecasting and Social ChangePublication date:2015-01-01
This paper explains how price factors affect market penetration of new energy, such as wind and PV. Also tells how subsidy policies, e.g. FiT shou...
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2015-09-24
Solar-powered water splitting with photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices is a promising method to simultaneously harvest and store solar energy at a l...
Published in:Journal of Cleaner ProductionPublication date:2015-09-01
The key for renewable power integration is to view the energy system as a whole. Combining the thermal and electric system enables to "oversize" re...
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2012-09-05
Metallic and plastic dye solar cells
Dye solar cells (DSCs) are quite a new technology in photovoltaics. The traditional DSCs are prepared on conductively coated glass substrates in hi...
Published in:Advances In Solar Energy TechnologyPublication date:1988-01-01
Published in:Microelectronic EngineeringPublication date:2014-08-01
Nanomaterials can be employed in a variety of energy technologies to improve performance, reduce costs, and open up new applications such as microe...
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2014-10-01
We present a new model for generating spatiotemporal power demand data for urban areas of the form P(x, y, t). Spatial (x,y) and temporal (time) lo...
Published in:Renewable and Sustainable Energy ReviewsPublication date:2015-05-01
How to increase energy system flexibility to enable large amounts of variable renewable energy power?
Published in:Renewable and Sustainable Energy ReviewsPublication date:2011-10-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2006-05-01
Published in:Advanced Energy MaterialsPublication date:2015-01-07
A novel fuel cell device based on integrating the Schottky junction effect with the electrochemical principle is designed, constructed, and verifie...
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2015-10-01
‘Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated without electrolyte filling holes in the FTO coated glass substrates by inkjet-printing the electrolyte...
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2012-12-01
Employing different energy carrier networks in connection with distributed renewable energy generation is an attractive way to improve energy susta...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2005-01-01
Sizing and applicability of solar combisystems providing both space heating and domestic hot water are investigated in this paper. The analysis is ...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1989-01-01
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2010-11-01
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2009-01-01
Energy policies may lead to important industrial outcomes. This paper investigates the impacts of energy policies on industry growth in renewable e...
Published in:Progress in Photovoltaics Research and ApplicationsPublication date:2014-08-04
Insights into corrosion in dye solar cells
Published in:Energy PolicyPublication date:2007-01-01
The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient ...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1994-09-01
Aquifers offer a potential and economical way of storing solar heat for long periods of time.A model is presented here how to simulate&design such ...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1986-01-01
Published in:EnergyPublication date:1983-10-01
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2007-03-01
Large-scale global use of new renewable energy sources (RES) necessitates massive physical resources. Present study shows that more than 99.5% of t...
Published in:Tenth E.C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy ConferencePublication date:1991-01-01
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1984-01-01
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1992-01-01
A novel semi-analytical method to determine optimal dimensions of solar energy systems with seasonal storage for very high share of solar energy.
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1991-01-01
A proper storage temperature is an important criterion for selecting a phase change material (PCM) for a passive solar heating application. Here we...
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1988-01-01
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1987-01-01
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2011-11-01
The paper gives new views for policy and subsidy design toward cost-/grid-parity of new energy.
Published in:Journal of Solar Energy EngineeringPublication date:1987-01-01
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:1985-01-01
Published in:Energy and BuildingsPublication date:1991-01-01
Published in:EnergyPublication date:2007-12-01
Published in:Thin Solid FilmsPublication date:2009-02-01
The optoelectronically active optical fiber is demonstrated in this work. This fiber consists of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) structure deposite...
Published in:Catalysis TodayPublication date:2016-01-01
Catalyst stability in nano-structured dye solar cells (DSC) and nano-composite fuel cells (NFC) is one of themost important factor that determine t...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:1987-01-01
Thermal energy storage (TES) enables more efficient use of conventional energy conversion plants and enhances the exploitation of renewable energy ...
Published in:Energy and BuildingsPublication date:1999-01-01
The large number of different design options available for energy conscious building design calls for careful quantitative assessments to find the ...
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:1991-01-01
A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the so...
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:1994-01-01
his paper describes the status of a photovoltaic hydrogen energy system development project at Helsinki University of Technology at the end of June...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:1983-01-01
The Kerava solar village was one of the first regional building complex world-wide with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasona...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:1985-01-01
Published in:International Journal of Ambient EnergyPublication date:1985-07-01
Published in:International Journal of Ambient EnergyPublication date:1983-10-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2005-11-15
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:1985-01-01
We presented a three-dimensional numerical model for seasonal heat storage in the ground using vertical heat exchanger pipes. The model also accoun...
Published in:International Journal of Solar EnergyPublication date:1984-01-01
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:1993-05-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2004-05-01
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2004-05-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:1994-01-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:1994-09-11
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2011-06-06
Smart grid voltage control
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2003-09-01
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2009-06-11
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2010-01-01
Published in:Journal of technology management & innovationPublication date:2012-07-01
Liberalization of electricity markets, governmental policies for renewable electricity and technology development are transforming national electri...
Published in:CarbonPublication date:2011-02-01
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2014-10-01
Low-temperature SOFC fuel cells have received much attention during the last decade. But is seems that performance, in particular ionic conductivi...
Published in:Electric Power Systems ResearchPublication date:2010-12-01
Both photovoltaic generation and domestic electricity demand exhibit characteristic variations on short and long time scales and are to a large ext...
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2011-04-14
Published in:Sensors and Actuators A PhysicalPublication date:2006-01-01
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2006-03-01
Published in:Electrochemistry CommunicationsPublication date:2009-01-01
Published in:Proceedings of ISES World Congress 2007 (Vol. I – Vol. V)Publication date:2008-01-01
Published in:Journal of Nanoscience and NanotechnologyPublication date:2010-02-01
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2009-01-01
Published in:Journal of Electroanalytical ChemistryPublication date:2011-04-01
The purpose of this study was to identify stable metal based counter electrodes (CE) for dye solar cells (DSC). Previous studies have shown that st...
Published in:Technology Analysis and Strategic ManagementPublication date:2015-08-12
We analysed here how situated learning influences niche development. Situated learning is tied to social action and context, perceiving knowledge a...
Published in:Progress in Photovoltaics Research and ApplicationsPublication date:2006-01-01
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2004-04-01
Published in:Technology in SocietyPublication date:2014-08-01
In this article changes in the electricity industries of four different countries are analyzed in terms of the incumbent utilities' growth strategi...
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2003-05-01
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2004-11-01
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2002-04-01
Published in:Advanced MaterialsPublication date:2010-08-17
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2008-03-01
Published in:Advanced Materials InterfacesPublication date:2013-12-23
Rapid transformation of a nonconductive PVC sheet into conductive substrate
using single walled carbon nanotubes to be used as a metalfree counter ...
The use of a thin carbon nanotube (CNT) counter electrode (CE) on plastic in a dye solar cell (DSC) is demonstrated as an alternative to expensive ...
Published in:International Journal of PhotoenergyPublication date:2009-01-01
Published in:Thin Solid FilmsPublication date:2011-09-01
Published in:Journal of Electroanalytical ChemistryPublication date:2012-01-01
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2012-12-19
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2012-01-01
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2014-01-09
Published in:Journal of The Electrochemical SocietyPublication date:2015-06-29
In this study the effect of the purification of electrolyte material on the performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells was i...
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2008-12-25
Published in:Journal of Electroanalytical ChemistryPublication date:2012-09-01
Published in:Polymer TestingPublication date:2006-08-01
Published in:Solar Energy Materials and Solar CellsPublication date:2004-10-01
Published in:Waste ManagementPublication date:1990-01-01
Published in:First E.C. Conference on Solar HeatingPublication date:1984-01-01
Published in:International Journal of Low-Carbon TechnologiesPublication date:2015-04-20
The effect of different charging infrastructure configurations on the electric-driven distance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (e-mileage) were...
Published in:Global ChallengesPublication date:2015-09-21
Solving the global energy-climate challenge requires multidisciplinary thinking.
Launch of a multidisciplinary journal that addresses grand societal and scientific challenges, such as Climate Change, Energy, Water, Global Health...
Platinium(Pt)-free counter electrodes (CEs) are economical alternative components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) . The development of these ...
Published in:Not availablePublication date:2016-01-20
The Sustainability Challenge
Latest progress in bioenergy from a multidisciplinary perspective.
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2016-01-01
We developed a cost-optimal and rule-based control for buildings with PV, employing a heat pump, thermal and electrical storage and shiftable loads...
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2014-09-01
Published in:International Journal of Hydrogen EnergyPublication date:2016-05-01
Ceramic low-temperature fuel cell is a promising clean energy technology. Electrodes are key components in the fuel cell. Here two different synthe...
Published in:EnergyPublication date:2010-02-01
Published in:Technological Forecasting and Social ChangePublication date:2016-03-01
Energy industries face major future challenges related to environment, security, and economics. Here we present a scenario-building framework based...
Published in:Microelectronic EngineeringPublication date:2013-08-01
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2010-06-01
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2016-01-01
We report here a novel fuel-to-electricity conversion technology resembling a fuel cell based on the perovskite solar cell principle
Published in:Hydrogen Power: Theoretical and Engineering SolutionsPublication date:1998-01-01
Published in:Applied Surface SciencePublication date:2015-11-01
A hydrochloric acid treatment was performed to modify the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays for improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensiti...
Published in:Journal of the American Chemical SocietyPublication date:2014-05-21
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2016-01-14
TiO2/ZnO/TiO2sandwich films as hole-blocking layer
We report here about a continuous and compact hole-blocking layer to prevent photocurrent recombination at the photoanode/electrode interface to ...
Published in:NanotechnologyPublication date:2016-03-23
We report a hybrid solar cell based on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) interfaced with amorphous silicon (a-Si).
Published in:Solar EnergyPublication date:2016-10-01
Chile has a huge solar energy potential, most of which is not yet harnessed.
We present here an updated potential of distributed photovoltaics in c...
Here we present an Integrated model for urban solar mapping combining solar resource and energy system.
Published in:Physical Chemistry Chemical PhysicsPublication date:2016-01-01
Our previous theoretical study on the performance limits of the platinum (Pt) nanoparticle catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) had s...
When the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is considered, an additional and often neglected detail of mass transport in liquid is the evolution and...
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2016-09-01
We investigate the effect of organotalc content on the charge transport in the electrolyte and solar cell performance and optimize the organotalc c...
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2016-02-23
The business of distributed solar power
How can distributed solar power best meet the energy needs of nonelectrified rural communities? In collaboration with a local technology provider, ...
Published in:Energy & Environmental SciencePublication date:2016-01-01
The slow process in which the light absorbing dye molecules are adsorbed from solution on the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrode film has been a h...
Published in:EnergyPublication date:2016-10-01
Increasing the use of variable renewable electricity (VRE) such as solar and wind power imposes major challenges to existing energy systems. If not...
Published in:Journal of Power SourcesPublication date:2016-10-01
Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. A new improved Li-ion battery model is presented h...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2016-08-08
A hybrid lithium-ion battery model for system-level analyses
An advanced lithium-ion battery model for system-level analyses such as electric vehicle fleet simulation or distributed energy storage application...
Published in:Global ChallengesPublication date:2016-09-30
Frugal Energy Innovations for Developing Countries
Frugal innovations have recently emerged to feature low-cost technologies and business innovations to serve consumers in emerging markets and impro...
Published in:Organic ElectronicsPublication date:2016-11-01
This paper discusses the science of inks for electrolytes for dye solar cells.
Published in:IEEE Journal of PhotovoltaicsPublication date:2016-11-01
Here we report on a stable perovskite solar cell with a close to 12% efficiency. PCMB enhanced performance
Published in:Energy Conversion and ManagementPublication date:2016-10-01
This paper discusses optimal control of power-to-heat conversion to heating systems and shiftable loads in cities to incorporate large variable ren...
Published in:Journal of Materials Chemistry CPublication date:2016-01-01
We report very high detectivity and photoresponse by using ZnO nanorods+perovskite+MoO2 hole layer.
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2016-11-11
New and old
This is a perspective article emphasising the importance of energy systems thinking in the big energy transition towards clean energy.
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2015-12-29
This is an editorial for 2016.
Published in:The Palgrave Handbook of the International Political Economy of EnergyPublication date:2016-01-01
We analyse the political and economic actors behind sociotechnical transitions in the electricity industry. Focusing on seldom-analysed dimensions ...
This is the Special Issue for 2nd International Conference on Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials & Thin Films for Energy Applications (NANOENERGY 2015),...
Published in:The Journal of Physical Chemistry CPublication date:2016-12-15
In the LiI electrolyte of DSSC competing interactions between lithium cation and the solvent MPN and the additives TBP, NMBI, and GuSCN were identi...
Published in:Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Energy and EnvironmentPublication date:2016-12-28
Clean energy transition is getting more urgent and needs stronger commitments
Published in:International Journal of Research, Innovation and CommercialisationPublication date:2017-01-01
This article analyses regime changes and niche development as interlinked processes as part of commercialising energy innovations. Theories about s...
Published in:Organic ElectronicsPublication date:2017-05-01
inkjet printing method was successfully demonstrated to produce catalytic platinum layers for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Published in:Applied EnergyPublication date:2017-03-01
A new optimal control model of a microgrid with smart PEVs and space heating.
Battery degradation and thermal dynamics of PEVs and buildings includ...
Published in:Renewable EnergyPublication date:2017-08-01
Here we propose a novel 2-stage dish concentrator system for concentrating solar power plants based on the so-called overlap method, which improves...
Published in:Renewable and Sustainable Energy ReviewsPublication date:2017-09-01
Degradation is often neglected in search for better solar cell materials, but is equally important than a high efficiency. Here we provide the late...
Published in:Energy Science & EngineeringPublication date:2017-04-01
China is the world leader in several areas of clean energy, but not in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). Our analysis provides an interesting viewpo...
Published in:International Journal of Energy ResearchPublication date:2017-05-04
New materials (e.g. carbon nano materials) play an important role in the upcoming energy transition to a carbon-free energy economy.
Published in:Energy PolicyPublication date:2017-09-01
Finland has decided to phase out coal and cut oil use by a quarter by 2030. Relying on nuclear power and bioenergy mainly, the Finnish case suggest...
Published in:ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesPublication date:2017-05-19
Uniform and pinhole-free electron-selective TiO2 layers are of utmost importance for efficient perovskite solar cells. Here we used a scalable and ...
Published in:Materials Today EnergyPublication date:2017-09-01
Low ionic conductivity and slow reaction kinetics often limit the performance of a ceramic nanocomposite fuel cell (CNFC). Here, we report a novel ...
Published in:Frontiers of Chemical Science and EngineeringPublication date:2017-06-03
A comparative analysis of perovskite structured cathode materials, La0.65Sr0.35MnO3 (LSM), La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC), La0.6Sr0.4FeO3 (LSF) and La0.6Sr0....
Published in:Global ChallengesPublication date:2017-08-01
This is an extended editorial to a special issue on the Water-Energy Nexus.
Published in:ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesPublication date:2017-06-09
Organic-inorganic hybrid layered materials are proposed as additives in a quasi-solid gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Talcs could p...
Published in:Nano EnergyPublication date:2017-07-01
Functionalities in heterostructure oxide material interfaces are an emerging subject resulting in extraordinary material properties such as great e...