Endoscopy - Innovative Uses and Emerging Technologies

  • September 2015, InTech
  • DOI: 10.5772/59220

Anesthesia Innovations for Endoscopy of Gastrointestinal Tract

What is it about?

Gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) is a procedure for diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities. This procedure requires some forms of anesthesia. The goal of procedural anesthesia is safe, effective control of pain and anxiety, as well as an appropriate degree of memory loss or reduced awareness. Generally, the majority of GIE procedures are performed by using topical anesthesia and intravenous sedation. General anesthesia is carried out in long and invasive procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound, and small bowel enteroscopy, as well in patients with history of failed sedation or drug and substance abuse, uncooperative or pediatric patients, and patients with cardiorespiratory system instabilities.

Why is it important?

Anesthesia is one of the important components of gastrointestinal endoscopic (GIE) procedures. The aim of anesthesia for these procedures is to improve patient’s comfort and endoscopic practice as well as patient and endoscopist satisfaction. The requirement for anesthesia is dependent on the type and duration of endoscopy, experience of endoscopist, and patient’s physical status. The anesthetic regimens for GIE procedures are quite different. Several guidelines from American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) [1] and American Academy of Pediatrics [2] are established. Appropriate pre-anesthetic assessment, anesthetic drugs used, monitoring practices and post-anesthesia care for anesthesia in GIE procedures are essential.


Somchai Amornyotin
Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University

GIE procedure requires some forms of anesthesia. To date, sedation for GIE procedure can be effectively and safely performed by anesthesiologist or nonanesthetic personnel with appropriate patient selection and monitoring. The new anesthetic drugs and monitoring equipments for safety and efficacy are available. However, pre-anesthetic evaluation and preparation, anesthetic drugs used, monitoring practices and post-anesthesia management are still essential for the anesthesia innovations in GIE procedures.

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The following have contributed to this page: Somchai Amornyotin