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The evolution of the working potential, or that of the consumed electrical energy, of electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials (intrinsically conducting polymers, redox polymers, carbon nanotubes, fullerene derivatives, grapheme derivatives, porphyrines, phtalocianines, among others) and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress) thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one chemical motor and several chemical sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. They fulfil the old dream of engineer and robot designers: one motor sensing by itself the working conditions. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a basic equation is attained. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the polymeric motor characteristics (rate of the muscle movement and muscle position) and the working variables (temperature, electrolyte concentration and mechanical conditions). By changing working conditions experimental results overlap theoretical predictions. The ensemble computer-generator-muscle-theoretical equation constitutes and describes artificial mechanical, thermal and chemical proprioception (consciousness) of the system.

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This page is a summary of: Can Human Proprioception Be Described by Physical-Chemical Equations? Proprioceptive Artificial Muscles, Key Engineering Materials, May 2015, Trans Tech Publications, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.644.145.
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