What is it about?

European pig production was also characterized by structural concentration in the 2000s, accompanied by a rapid increase in technological performance, specialization, and the modernization of farm economies of scale. Thus, intensification of production created economic benefits for the sector, but also increased social tension, particularly in the area of environmental sustainability and environmental protection. Therefore, pig population clustering and concentration might also be linked to environmental problems, particularly swine sewage management. Undertaking an assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of the intensification and concentration in the pig sector is even more complex in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the spatial transformations in the Hungarian and Slovenian pig sectors

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Why is it important?

Both countries experienced a rapid decline in pig population. This profound structural change has led to a smaller number of more concentrated pig farms and increased territorial concentration. The degree of farm and territorial concentration and inequality in Hungary has been much higher than in Slovenia, and the concentration gap between the countries has increased. Between 2000 and 2010, the degree of concentration was much higher in Hungary than in Slovenia; average herd size per holding increased by 68 percent in Hungary, and only seven percent in Slovenia. In Hungary, clustering effects were particularly significant, with the pig sector moving towards large-scale concentration. The former effect was also confirmed in the Slovenian pig sector, but significantly weakened during the period under investigation.


In 2020, agricultural censuses were conducted and will provide recent data structures and comparisons. Among issues for research in the future is the analysis of the spatial clustering concentration, capturing the impact of scale effects in economic structures and agglomeration economics, considering causal inference

Professor Imre Ferto
Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences: Budapest

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This page is a summary of: Spatial Transformation of the Pig Sector in Hungary and Slovenia: A Comparative Analysis, Sustainability, October 2021, MDPI AG, DOI: 10.3390/su132111851.
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