What is it about?

Google is experimenting with different ways of moving away from online advertising targeted at individuals, and towards collecting data to train Artificial Intelligence to generate new business opportunities. This paper examines one of these experiments, Federated Learning of Cohorts (FLoC), and explains why it failed.

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Why is it important?

This matters because 1. AI is the largest growing sector of the tech economy; 2. personal data collection is an increasing concern for privacy, security and economic reasons; and 3. regulation of targeted advertising practices is spreading worldwide.

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This page is a summary of: Culling the FLoC: Market forces, regulatory regimes and Google’s (mis)steps on the path away from targeted advertising, Information Polity, June 2022, IOS Press,
DOI: 10.3233/ip-211535.
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