What is it about?

A B S T R A C T The Dardanelles Strait functions as a bridge between Biga and Gelibolu peninsulas, connecting the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea. Many defenses have been built on the Dardanelles Strait, which have hosted many civilizations from the past to the present day, in line with the needs of the time. Kilitbahir Castle, which has a three-leaf clover plan and is located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus after the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmet the Conqueror; manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The architectural assembly of the castle is among the most aesthetic and unique among the Ottoman Castles. In terms of protecting the physical environment, it is observed that the defensive buildings which survived up to today are not adequately protected, losing their historical and architectural values. In this context, the restoration of Kilitbahir Castle dating back to Ottoman Period defense structures on the Dardanelles Strait was evaluated. Its phases throughout the process along with the current location and architecture were evaluated by using written and visual resources. European Archives, BNF Archives, Topkapı Palace Archives and Istanbul University Archives were utilized for reaching the castle engravings. In accordance with the information obtained in the historical research process, the exhibition arrangement and environment planning project of the structure, which serves as a museum, were prepared.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

Evaluation of Çanakkale Kilitbahir Castle in the Context of Refunctioning * M.A. KUBRA DUYAR 1, Dr. YASEMIN KUCUKGOK 2, Mrs. FATMA MELTEM DUMAN AKYILDIZ 3 1 , 2 & 3 Faculty of Architecture, İstanbul Aydın University, İstanbul, Turkey E mail: kubra_gobeloglu@hotmail.com , E mail: yaseminkcgk@gmail.com E mail: fatmameltemduman@gmail.com A B S T R A C T The Dardanelles Strait functions as a bridge between Biga and Gelibolu peninsulas, connecting the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea. Many defenses have been built on the Dardanelles Strait, which have hosted many civilizations from the past to the present day, in line with the needs of the time. Kilitbahir Castle, which has a three-leaf clover plan and is located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus after the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmet the Conqueror; manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The architectural assembly of the castle is among the most aesthetic and unique among the Ottoman Castles. In terms of protecting the physical environment, it is observed that the defensive buildings which survived up to today are not adequately protected, losing their historical and architectural values. In this context, the restoration of Kilitbahir Castle dating back to Ottoman Period defense structures on the Dardanelles Strait was evaluated. Its phases throughout the process along with the current location and architecture were evaluated by using written and visual resources. European Archives, BNF Archives, Topkapı Palace Archives and Istanbul University Archives were utilized for reaching the castle engravings. In accordance with the information obtained in the historical research process, the exhibition arrangement and environment planning project of the structure, which serves as a museum, were prepared. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 146-152. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4729 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction One of the most important actions of human existence is the concept of protection and defense. These actions led to the emergence of defense structures. They needed to be protected in order to prevent any attack from the opposite side and created defenses that they could protect themselves with. Defense structures from the past to the present day are one of the important elements forming the urban texture. The castle buildings were built along the periphery of the cities, on the islands near the straits or on the sea shore and near the shore. In this process, the strategic location of the city and topography also played an important role. In this context, the castles consist of circular, hexagonal or polygonal masses of bastions, or in a regular geometric form, bound together according to the topography of the city. When it comes to defense in the Turkish and Islamic cities, the buildings made up of sections such as Inner castle, Outer castle, Şehristan and Rabat come to mind. The inner castle is the main center of the defense of the area surrounded by the ramparts on the highest slope of the city, the area where the ruler or commander resides. It is the core point of the city. Outer castle surrounds the city. Şehristan is a region in the city with trade, religion, public and residential areas. Rabat is the area where there are trade functions and structures that develop around the fortress doors outside the fortifications. Kilitbahir Castle, which was ordered to be built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in the Ottoman Period with its own scheme, is located at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles Strait, directly opposite of the Castle Fortress to control the sea passage at Rumeli Side. Tursun Bey, one of the historians of the period, wrote that two castles facing each other were built in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus (called Eceovasi) after the conquest of Istanbul, that one of them was named Kilîdü'l-bahr and the other was named Sultaniye and these castles were equipped with artilleries. (1) 2. Literature Review 2.1. Kilitbahir Castle Location and History Kilitbahir Castle is located on the Dardanelles Strait, which connects the Marmara Sea and Aegean Sea, at the edge of Malaz Hill where two opposite shores get closest with each other. Figure 01: Map of 18th Century Dardanelles Strait, National Library of France, Map and Planning Department, GE C-4074. It was built by Mehmet the Conqueror after the conquest of Istanbul in order to keep the Bosphorus under control between 1461-1462. Having a three-leaf clover plan and located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus, Kilitbahir Castle manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era, integrated with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The sea-side part of the arc-shaped outer walls did not survive. There are ten bastions on the outer walls. Two of the bastions are circular, four are triangular and four are square. There are three gates on the outer walls, two on the land and one on the sea side. The inner castle form of a clover plan formed by the joining of three circular shaped walls. The courtyards inside the walls are separated by a door. It was aimed to separate the courtyards from each other by closing the doors at the time of the attack. The inner castle has two gates, one at the sea and one at the land side. Inside the clover-shaped inner castle walls are seven-story inner towers reflecting the same geometry. The inner tower is connected to the inner castle walls with arches separating the courtyards. Figure 02: Gravure 01. Sr Berquin's Kilitbahir Castle Plan; National Library of France, Map and Planning Department, GE SH 18 PF 98 DIV 5 P 2 Evliya Çelebi talks about Kilitbahir Castle, which he saw in 1659, a neighborhood of tiled houses and a mosque that he named Hünkar Mosque.

Perspectives

Evaluation of Çanakkale Kilitbahir Castle in the Context of Refunctioning * M.A. KUBRA DUYAR 1, Dr. YASEMIN KUCUKGOK 2, Mrs. FATMA MELTEM DUMAN AKYILDIZ 3 1 , 2 & 3 Faculty of Architecture, İstanbul Aydın University, İstanbul, Turkey E mail: kubra_gobeloglu@hotmail.com , E mail: yaseminkcgk@gmail.com E mail: fatmameltemduman@gmail.com A B S T R A C T The Dardanelles Strait functions as a bridge between Biga and Gelibolu peninsulas, connecting the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea. Many defenses have been built on the Dardanelles Strait, which have hosted many civilizations from the past to the present day, in line with the needs of the time. Kilitbahir Castle, which has a three-leaf clover plan and is located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus after the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmet the Conqueror; manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The architectural assembly of the castle is among the most aesthetic and unique among the Ottoman Castles. In terms of protecting the physical environment, it is observed that the defensive buildings which survived up to today are not adequately protected, losing their historical and architectural values. In this context, the restoration of Kilitbahir Castle dating back to Ottoman Period defense structures on the Dardanelles Strait was evaluated. Its phases throughout the process along with the current location and architecture were evaluated by using written and visual resources. European Archives, BNF Archives, Topkapı Palace Archives and Istanbul University Archives were utilized for reaching the castle engravings. In accordance with the information obtained in the historical research process, the exhibition arrangement and environment planning project of the structure, which serves as a museum, were prepared. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 146-152. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4729 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction One of the most important actions of human existence is the concept of protection and defense. These actions led to the emergence of defense structures. They needed to be protected in order to prevent any attack from the opposite side and created defenses that they could protect themselves with. Defense structures from the past to the present day are one of the important elements forming the urban texture. The castle buildings were built along the periphery of the cities, on the islands near the straits or on the sea shore and near the shore. In this process, the strategic location of the city and topography also played an important role. In this context, the castles consist of circular, hexagonal or polygonal masses of bastions, or in a regular geometric form, bound together according to the topography of the city. When it comes to defense in the Turkish and Islamic cities, the buildings made up of sections such as Inner castle, Outer castle, Şehristan and Rabat come to mind. The inner castle is the main center of the defense of the area surrounded by the ramparts on the highest slope of the city, the area where the ruler or commander resides. It is the core point of the city. Outer castle surrounds the city. Şehristan is a region in the city with trade, religion, public and residential areas. Rabat is the area where there are trade functions and structures that develop around the fortress doors outside the fortifications. Kilitbahir Castle, which was ordered to be built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in the Ottoman Period with its own scheme, is located at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles Strait, directly opposite of the Castle Fortress to control the sea passage at Rumeli Side. Tursun Bey, one of the historians of the period, wrote that two castles facing each other were built in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus (called Eceovasi) after the conquest of Istanbul, that one of them was named Kilîdü'l-bahr and the other was named Sultaniye and these castles were equipped with artilleries. (1) 2. Literature Review 2.1. Kilitbahir Castle Location and History Kilitbahir Castle is located on the Dardanelles Strait, which connects the Marmara Sea and Aegean Sea, at the edge of Malaz Hill where two opposite shores get closest with each other. Figure 01: Map of 18th Century Dardanelles Strait, National Library of France, Map and Planning Department, GE C-4074. It was built by Mehmet the Conqueror after the conquest of Istanbul in order to keep the Bosphorus under control between 1461-1462. Having a three-leaf clover plan and located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus, Kilitbahir Castle manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era, integrated with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The sea-side part of the arc-shaped outer walls did not survive. There are ten bastions on the outer walls. Two of the bastions are circular, four are triangular and four are square. There are three gates on the outer walls, two on the land and one on the sea side. The inner castle form of a clover plan formed by the joining of three circular shaped walls. The courtyards inside the walls are separated by a door. It was aimed to separate the courtyards from each other by closing the doors at the time of the attack. The inner castle has two gates, one at the sea and one at the land side. Inside the clover-shaped inner castle walls are seven-story inner towers reflecting the same geometry. The inner tower is connected to the inner castle walls with arches separating the courtyards. Figure 02: Gravure 01. Sr Berquin's Kilitbahir Castle Plan; National Library of France, Map and Planning Department, GE SH 18 PF 98 DIV 5 P 2 Evliya Çelebi talks about Kilitbahir Castle, which he saw in 1659, a neighborhood of tiled houses and a mosque that he named Hünkar Mosque.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Evaluation of Çanakkale Kilitbahir Castle in the Context of Refunctioning, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, November 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4729.
You can read the full text:

Read

Contributors

The following have contributed to this page