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A B S T R A C T Museums are nowadays among the most popular projects for the public, the concept of thermal comfort in museums is often treated after the realization. Even if in the design, the architect shows a particular intention to work with daylight which is considered for these projects as main, the architect often considers certain elements that have an influence on the energy balance of these projects such as: orientation, building materials. The museum route is the key to the success of any museum project, it is the space of the visitor, the space in which he is invaded by sensations. In this study, we will first evaluate the thermal comfort in the museum as a whole (building) and then through its route. The objective is to guide reflection in the design of the museum towards the route in order to reduce energy consumption. In order to carry out our study, some European museums were analysed by means of simulation, according to the thermal comfort of their designs for the most unfavourable conditions, then by a thermal analysis of the museum route according to the segmentation principle using the average radiant temperature. This method allowed us to bring out correspondences between the architectural form and the route. Finally, the segmentation method constitutes the basis of a new methodological approach called "thermal topology" based on the discontinuities of the temperatures in the route.

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Evaluation of the Thermal Comfort in the Design of the Museum Routes: The Thermal Topology * Ph.D. Candidate SELMA SARAOUI1, Dr. AZEDDINE BELAKEHAL 2, Dr. ABDELGHANI ATTAR 3 Dr. AMAR BENNADJI 4 1 Department of Architecture, University of Bejaia, Algeria. ² Laboratoire de Conception et de Modélisation des Formes et des Ambiances (LACOMOFA), Department of Architecture, University of Biskra, Algeria. ³MCB at the Department of Architecture, University of Bejaia, Algeria. 4 The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment, the Robert Gordon University, UK E mail: saraoui.selma@gmail.com , E mail: belakehal@gmail.com , E mail: attar.a.ghani@gmail.com , E mail: a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk A B S T R A C T Museums are nowadays among the most popular projects for the public, the concept of thermal comfort in museums is often treated after the realization. Even if in the design, the architect shows a particular intention to work with daylight which is considered for these projects as main, the architect often considers certain elements that have an influence on the energy balance of these projects such as: orientation, building materials. The museum route is the key to the success of any museum project, it is the space of the visitor, the space in which he is invaded by sensations. In this study, we will first evaluate the thermal comfort in the museum as a whole (building) and then through its route. The objective is to guide reflection in the design of the museum towards the route in order to reduce energy consumption. In order to carry out our study, some European museums were analysed by means of simulation, according to the thermal comfort of their designs for the most unfavourable conditions, then by a thermal analysis of the museum route according to the segmentation principle using the average radiant temperature. This method allowed us to bring out correspondences between the architectural form and the route. Finally, the segmentation method constitutes the basis of a new methodological approach called "thermal topology" based on the discontinuities of the temperatures in the route. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 122-136. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4727 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The birth of architecture had always been linked to the human being and his needs. Theories on the architectural space have passed from the metric dimensional character to the ambient psychological character. Reflections on the human body have shown that the body does not stop at the surface of the skin, it has an immaterial boundary called bubble that is located in close proximity to his body. (J.Cousin, 1980) Thus, it will be necessary to imagine that the body is included in a bubble which is also composed of several layers taking the form of a protective eclamptic sphere. Man is thus surrounded by several spheres of variable dimensions; these variations are due to his way of moving in space and the route between several spaces. These variations affect human man's behavior and his ways of appropriating space. The requirements of the human being as to his space are multiple, it can be noticed that from our reading, there are three ways of appropriating the space, a very personal way making it private, a way slightly personal making it semi-public, and a not personal way making it public. The house is currently considered as the private space of the human being, many are the research works that deal with its aspects, however there are also projects that are considered by the human being as private with varying degrees of change such as offices, or work offices or even schools, hospitals ... in our era there are also many project intended for the general public, we find shopping centers, theaters, museums... The museum has a public character because it is designed and intended since the beginning of its appearance to the public, however it also has its private property and many characteristics in relation to its user who is its visitor. Visitors must be transported by their emotions and live a very personal adventure in a space intended for the public 2. Literature Review 2.1. The museums a "place" for the public: Previously, the architecture of the museum, directly inherited from the great princely residences, had been adapted to become at the same time the setting, the decoration of a private collection; then a public, and place of its ideal contemplation. The laws derived from the theories of "Gestalt" have developed the design of these spaces. They are not the only ones, there are also the various studies carried out in the company of visually impaired people, which made it possible to establish some rules in the perception of space. Certain principles of the psychology of perception can also find an application in architecture and especially in museum architecture. For a person who has all his senses, the experience of architecture is primarily visual (sense of movement). The movement of the body, even if it is not one of our five senses, offers us the measure of things and space. The route, the visit, allow the appreciation of the grandeur. We note that the exploration of a space is carried out by simple gestures such as approaching, moving away, going around, going up, going down, penetrating, etc. These actions invite us to control what we want to see, hear, smell, taste, touch in a given environment. During an exhibition, the visitor perceives and appropriates an ambience, and at the same time, "dialogue" with what he sees, hears, or touches, etc. It is no longer in a "space" (quantifiable volume, whose physical dimensions and surface can be determined), it is located in a "place" that has a history and that we will discover. The "place" is the result of a state of mind, a feeling of well-being or malaise, a feeling. 2.2. The design of contemporary museums: In this paper we will focus on contemporary museums, with an overview of the steps that the museum has taken to reach its present complete form, and finally, the relationship between its external and internal aspect thanks to the notion of the route. 2.2.1. An overview of the evolution of the design: The appearance of the museum design had evolved, according to I. Bayón Juan (2013) in the city of the 19th century, the museum was consolidated as an important building in the urban context with a social function, the consolidation of several elaborate and defined models generated new typological qualifiers i) the Museum-temple, ii) the Museum-palace, ii) the Composite Museum. The great social and cultural transformations of the 20th century changed the concept of the museum, its social function and the way it was exhibited. The museum will no longer be a national sanctuary of art or science, but a tool for the conservation and transmission of knowledge. (I. B. Juan, 2013) In the post-war period, a new type of museum appeared, the museum as a “white cube” of modernity, linked to the universal space of Mies van der Rohe. The first reactions against the white cube and the museum's association with the mausoleum began to appear in the 1970s.

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Evaluation of the Thermal Comfort in the Design of the Museum Routes: The Thermal Topology * Ph.D. Candidate SELMA SARAOUI1, Dr. AZEDDINE BELAKEHAL 2, Dr. ABDELGHANI ATTAR 3 Dr. AMAR BENNADJI 4 1 Department of Architecture, University of Bejaia, Algeria. ² Laboratoire de Conception et de Modélisation des Formes et des Ambiances (LACOMOFA), Department of Architecture, University of Biskra, Algeria. ³MCB at the Department of Architecture, University of Bejaia, Algeria. 4 The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment, the Robert Gordon University, UK E mail: saraoui.selma@gmail.com , E mail: belakehal@gmail.com , E mail: attar.a.ghani@gmail.com , E mail: a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk A B S T R A C T Museums are nowadays among the most popular projects for the public, the concept of thermal comfort in museums is often treated after the realization. Even if in the design, the architect shows a particular intention to work with daylight which is considered for these projects as main, the architect often considers certain elements that have an influence on the energy balance of these projects such as: orientation, building materials. The museum route is the key to the success of any museum project, it is the space of the visitor, the space in which he is invaded by sensations. In this study, we will first evaluate the thermal comfort in the museum as a whole (building) and then through its route. The objective is to guide reflection in the design of the museum towards the route in order to reduce energy consumption. In order to carry out our study, some European museums were analysed by means of simulation, according to the thermal comfort of their designs for the most unfavourable conditions, then by a thermal analysis of the museum route according to the segmentation principle using the average radiant temperature. This method allowed us to bring out correspondences between the architectural form and the route. Finally, the segmentation method constitutes the basis of a new methodological approach called "thermal topology" based on the discontinuities of the temperatures in the route. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 122-136. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4727 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The birth of architecture had always been linked to the human being and his needs. Theories on the architectural space have passed from the metric dimensional character to the ambient psychological character. Reflections on the human body have shown that the body does not stop at the surface of the skin, it has an immaterial boundary called bubble that is located in close proximity to his body. (J.Cousin, 1980) Thus, it will be necessary to imagine that the body is included in a bubble which is also composed of several layers taking the form of a protective eclamptic sphere. Man is thus surrounded by several spheres of variable dimensions; these variations are due to his way of moving in space and the route between several spaces. These variations affect human man's behavior and his ways of appropriating space. The requirements of the human being as to his space are multiple, it can be noticed that from our reading, there are three ways of appropriating the space, a very personal way making it private, a way slightly personal making it semi-public, and a not personal way making it public. The house is currently considered as the private space of the human being, many are the research works that deal with its aspects, however there are also projects that are considered by the human being as private with varying degrees of change such as offices, or work offices or even schools, hospitals ... in our era there are also many project intended for the general public, we find shopping centers, theaters, museums... The museum has a public character because it is designed and intended since the beginning of its appearance to the public, however it also has its private property and many characteristics in relation to its user who is its visitor. Visitors must be transported by their emotions and live a very personal adventure in a space intended for the public 2. Literature Review 2.1. The museums a "place" for the public: Previously, the architecture of the museum, directly inherited from the great princely residences, had been adapted to become at the same time the setting, the decoration of a private collection; then a public, and place of its ideal contemplation. The laws derived from the theories of "Gestalt" have developed the design of these spaces. They are not the only ones, there are also the various studies carried out in the company of visually impaired people, which made it possible to establish some rules in the perception of space. Certain principles of the psychology of perception can also find an application in architecture and especially in museum architecture. For a person who has all his senses, the experience of architecture is primarily visual (sense of movement). The movement of the body, even if it is not one of our five senses, offers us the measure of things and space. The route, the visit, allow the appreciation of the grandeur. We note that the exploration of a space is carried out by simple gestures such as approaching, moving away, going around, going up, going down, penetrating, etc. These actions invite us to control what we want to see, hear, smell, taste, touch in a given environment. During an exhibition, the visitor perceives and appropriates an ambience, and at the same time, "dialogue" with what he sees, hears, or touches, etc. It is no longer in a "space" (quantifiable volume, whose physical dimensions and surface can be determined), it is located in a "place" that has a history and that we will discover. The "place" is the result of a state of mind, a feeling of well-being or malaise, a feeling. 2.2. The design of contemporary museums: In this paper we will focus on contemporary museums, with an overview of the steps that the museum has taken to reach its present complete form, and finally, the relationship between its external and internal aspect thanks to the notion of the route. 2.2.1. An overview of the evolution of the design: The appearance of the museum design had evolved, according to I. Bayón Juan (2013) in the city of the 19th century, the museum was consolidated as an important building in the urban context with a social function, the consolidation of several elaborate and defined models generated new typological qualifiers i) the Museum-temple, ii) the Museum-palace, ii) the Composite Museum. The great social and cultural transformations of the 20th century changed the concept of the museum, its social function and the way it was exhibited. The museum will no longer be a national sanctuary of art or science, but a tool for the conservation and transmission of knowledge. (I. B. Juan, 2013) In the post-war period, a new type of museum appeared, the museum as a “white cube” of modernity, linked to the universal space of Mies van der Rohe. The first reactions against the white cube and the museum's association with the mausoleum began to appear in the 1970s.

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This page is a summary of: Evaluation of the Thermal Comfort in the Design of the Museum Routes: The Thermal Topology, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, November 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4727.
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