What is it about?

A B S T R A C T The outdoor lighting constitutes a significant part of the night activities of people in contemporary cities. Nevertheless, in many cases, this may result in the increasing and irrational use of it affecting the users of public areas, the environment and driving safety. The subject of this paper is to extend the discussion on the subject, to provide answers and to suggest methods for the improvement of the existing conditions in urban street lighting through the use of new technologies and smart lighting management systems, with the aim of achieving a smooth relationship between the user’s needs, safety, sustainability, quality of life and energy saving.

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Why is it important?

Optimization of Urban Street Lighting Conditions Focusing On Energy Saving, Safety and Users’ Needs * Dr. CHRISTINA SKANDALI 1, M.A. Y.S. LAMBIRI 2 1 & 2 School of Applied Arts, Hellenic Open University, Greece E mail: skandali.christina@ac.eap.gr E mail: std085851@ac.eap.gr A B S T R A C T The outdoor lighting constitutes a significant part of the night activities of people in contemporary cities. Nevertheless, in many cases, this may result in the increasing and irrational use of it affecting the users of public areas, the environment and driving safety. The subject of this paper is to extend the discussion on the subject, to provide answers and to suggest methods for the improvement of the existing conditions in urban street lighting through the use of new technologies and smart lighting management systems, with the aim of achieving a smooth relationship between the user’s needs, safety, sustainability, quality of life and energy saving. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4726 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Optimization is defined as “the action of making the best or most effective use of a situation or resource” (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/optimization). In the case of urban street lighting, optimization constitutes the correlation of design with the restrictions of the lighting Regulations while using the latest technologies and “smart” lighting management systems. The purpose is to achieve the maximum possible energy saving and reduction of CO2 and at the same time ensure better living conditions to the users of the city; both drivers and pedestrians. Therefore, apart from the benefits on environmental issues, the study focuses on its effects on driving safety and the reduction of car accidents, the increase of drivers’ and pedestrians’ feeling of security, and urban crime in general. The ultimate goal of the research is to get a wide knowledge on the effects of the optimization of urban street lighting in all aspects of urban living conditions in modern cities. 2. Methodology For the purpose of the study, the scientific material used focuses on primary sources, European and International literature, scientific articles and papers related to the subject and a wide analysis of various case studies using applications from all around the world, mainly Europe and America. A critical composition of the findings leads to conclusions as well as in methods of improvement of the existing street lighting conditions, on the basis of the users’ safety, the energy saving possibilities, and also the creation of fair, in terms of lighting, urban areas in connection with the least possible environmental impact. Primarily the problems of “bad lighting” in urban areas are defined, then optimization methods are suggested in order to upgrade urban environments and in the end the impacts of optimization in the categorized problems are analysed. 3. Literature Review 3.1. The definition of “bad lighting” in urban areas. “Bad lighting” is when the final lighting outcome in the streets causes problems to the users or to the city itself. “Bad lighting” can be caused by inappropriate design, wrong maintenance of the system or no maintenance at all. The role of the European Lighting Expert in projects is crucial (http://europeanlightingexpert.org/en/), as this person has the knowledge to best design a lighting system by using the Lighting Regulations appropriately, while integrating all other relevant parameters that need to be taken into consideration in each specific case. “Bad lighting” design can have a negative impact on the environment (i.e. excessive energy consumption and carbon emissions, exacerbation of the phenomenon of light pollution and the impact of lighting on flora and fauna in protected areas). Furthermore, “bad lighting” can have a serious effect on peoples’ health (disruption of the human circadian system), peoples’ safety (i.e. risk in driving safely, lack of orientation and visibility, weakness of the eyes to adapt to sudden changes in environmental illumination, lack of face recognition and sense of security for pedestrians). It has been proven that serious car accidents happen when lighting is not appropriate or there is no lighting at all, having as victims’ pedestrians too. Another serious aspect that might be correlated with “bad lighting” is crime. Of course, not all the factors co-exist at the same time, but in each specific case some of them tend to cause problems in the smooth operation of urban areas. While living in a period of unusual urbanization most people consider as very important to live safely in attractive and friendly environments in modern cities. The growth of the urban population offers great opportunities for economic and social development, while at the same time it presents enormous challenges. 3.2. Optimization techniques in order to improve street lighting conditions. “Good lighting design” based on Lighting Standards and the use of new technologies and lighting management systems are the two main parameters that will rule the whole discussion in order to examine the impact they have in the urban environment. Additionally to the above, “good lighting design” serves functionality that meets the needs of each case, while using good quality fittings in the right position, the appropriate colour temperature and many other parameters that need to be taken into consideration in order to obtain the ideal solution. 3.3. Designing according to the Lighting Standards. The necessity of the rational use of street lighting to the safety of users, drivers and pedestrians at night imposed to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) the need for the institutionalization of the Lighting Standard EN 13201 in 2004. With the evolvement of technology, the installation of innovative lighting solutions and the integration of street lighting control and management systems, was considered necessary to revise the existing standard. Therefore EN 13201:2014 has been published by the CEN/TC 169 in December 2014 which is based on the Technical Report of CIE 115/2010. The revised EN consists of five parts. The whole idea of the CEN/TR 13201-1 (2014, p.5) is “to specify the lighting classes and give guidelines on the selection of the most appropriate class for a given situation”. It also introduces Adaptive Lighting and dimming techniques in order to further reduce energy consumption and improve environmental conditions under reduced traffic volume during certain periods of night or under varying weather conditions. While adaptive lighting is applicable, luminance or illuminance levels can fluctuate but the other qualitative features such as uniformity and the threshold increment (TI) for disability glare as defined in EN 13201-2 remain unchanged.

Perspectives

Optimization of Urban Street Lighting Conditions Focusing On Energy Saving, Safety and Users’ Needs * Dr. CHRISTINA SKANDALI 1, M.A. Y.S. LAMBIRI 2 1 & 2 School of Applied Arts, Hellenic Open University, Greece E mail: skandali.christina@ac.eap.gr E mail: std085851@ac.eap.gr A B S T R A C T The outdoor lighting constitutes a significant part of the night activities of people in contemporary cities. Nevertheless, in many cases, this may result in the increasing and irrational use of it affecting the users of public areas, the environment and driving safety. The subject of this paper is to extend the discussion on the subject, to provide answers and to suggest methods for the improvement of the existing conditions in urban street lighting through the use of new technologies and smart lighting management systems, with the aim of achieving a smooth relationship between the user’s needs, safety, sustainability, quality of life and energy saving. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4726 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Optimization is defined as “the action of making the best or most effective use of a situation or resource” (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/optimization). In the case of urban street lighting, optimization constitutes the correlation of design with the restrictions of the lighting Regulations while using the latest technologies and “smart” lighting management systems. The purpose is to achieve the maximum possible energy saving and reduction of CO2 and at the same time ensure better living conditions to the users of the city; both drivers and pedestrians. Therefore, apart from the benefits on environmental issues, the study focuses on its effects on driving safety and the reduction of car accidents, the increase of drivers’ and pedestrians’ feeling of security, and urban crime in general. The ultimate goal of the research is to get a wide knowledge on the effects of the optimization of urban street lighting in all aspects of urban living conditions in modern cities. 2. Methodology For the purpose of the study, the scientific material used focuses on primary sources, European and International literature, scientific articles and papers related to the subject and a wide analysis of various case studies using applications from all around the world, mainly Europe and America. A critical composition of the findings leads to conclusions as well as in methods of improvement of the existing street lighting conditions, on the basis of the users’ safety, the energy saving possibilities, and also the creation of fair, in terms of lighting, urban areas in connection with the least possible environmental impact. Primarily the problems of “bad lighting” in urban areas are defined, then optimization methods are suggested in order to upgrade urban environments and in the end the impacts of optimization in the categorized problems are analysed. 3. Literature Review 3.1. The definition of “bad lighting” in urban areas. “Bad lighting” is when the final lighting outcome in the streets causes problems to the users or to the city itself. “Bad lighting” can be caused by inappropriate design, wrong maintenance of the system or no maintenance at all. The role of the European Lighting Expert in projects is crucial (http://europeanlightingexpert.org/en/), as this person has the knowledge to best design a lighting system by using the Lighting Regulations appropriately, while integrating all other relevant parameters that need to be taken into consideration in each specific case. “Bad lighting” design can have a negative impact on the environment (i.e. excessive energy consumption and carbon emissions, exacerbation of the phenomenon of light pollution and the impact of lighting on flora and fauna in protected areas). Furthermore, “bad lighting” can have a serious effect on peoples’ health (disruption of the human circadian system), peoples’ safety (i.e. risk in driving safely, lack of orientation and visibility, weakness of the eyes to adapt to sudden changes in environmental illumination, lack of face recognition and sense of security for pedestrians). It has been proven that serious car accidents happen when lighting is not appropriate or there is no lighting at all, having as victims’ pedestrians too. Another serious aspect that might be correlated with “bad lighting” is crime. Of course, not all the factors co-exist at the same time, but in each specific case some of them tend to cause problems in the smooth operation of urban areas. While living in a period of unusual urbanization most people consider as very important to live safely in attractive and friendly environments in modern cities. The growth of the urban population offers great opportunities for economic and social development, while at the same time it presents enormous challenges. 3.2. Optimization techniques in order to improve street lighting conditions. “Good lighting design” based on Lighting Standards and the use of new technologies and lighting management systems are the two main parameters that will rule the whole discussion in order to examine the impact they have in the urban environment. Additionally to the above, “good lighting design” serves functionality that meets the needs of each case, while using good quality fittings in the right position, the appropriate colour temperature and many other parameters that need to be taken into consideration in order to obtain the ideal solution. 3.3. Designing according to the Lighting Standards. The necessity of the rational use of street lighting to the safety of users, drivers and pedestrians at night imposed to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) the need for the institutionalization of the Lighting Standard EN 13201 in 2004. With the evolvement of technology, the installation of innovative lighting solutions and the integration of street lighting control and management systems, was considered necessary to revise the existing standard. Therefore EN 13201:2014 has been published by the CEN/TC 169 in December 2014 which is based on the Technical Report of CIE 115/2010. The revised EN consists of five parts. The whole idea of the CEN/TR 13201-1 (2014, p.5) is “to specify the lighting classes and give guidelines on the selection of the most appropriate class for a given situation”. It also introduces Adaptive Lighting and dimming techniques in order to further reduce energy consumption and improve environmental conditions under reduced traffic volume during certain periods of night or under varying weather conditions. While adaptive lighting is applicable, luminance or illuminance levels can fluctuate but the other qualitative features such as uniformity and the threshold increment (TI) for disability glare as defined in EN 13201-2 remain unchanged.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Optimization Of Urban Street Lighting Conditions Focusing On Energy Saving, Safety And Users’ Needs, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, November 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4726.
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