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A B S T R A C T Vernacular architecture presents sustainable minimum-impact structures harmonized with their context and inhabitants. Heritage preserved tangible and intangible in material forms, encrypted spiritual believes of humanity's life in dwellings’ organization unveiling the details of our ancestors’ life and world cultures’ connectivity. Instigated by modern-world urbanization, sustainability and cultural diversity issues, the study is researching on cultures connectivity, corresponding to the scale and context of the global cityscape and attempting to synthesize vernacular heritage. The objective of this research is to study indigenous human congruent architectural examples and their relationship with intangible aspects of habitat. This paper will be adapting a qualitative method, by which it aims to study and observe various examples so as to analyze interconnections of Siberian Chums and Native-American Tipi, their design driving forces, settlement of the 2nd century BC- Arkaim and Japanese traditional architecture.

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Vernacular Architectural Preservation of Material and Spiritual Interconnected Cultural Heritage * B.A. ALMIRA KHAFIZOVA Department of Architecture, Girne American University, Turkey E mail: halmirah@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T Vernacular architecture presents sustainable minimum-impact structures harmonized with their context and inhabitants. Heritage preserved tangible and intangible in material forms, encrypted spiritual believes of humanity's life in dwellings’ organization unveiling the details of our ancestors’ life and world cultures’ connectivity. Instigated by modern-world urbanization, sustainability and cultural diversity issues, the study is researching on cultures connectivity, corresponding to the scale and context of the global cityscape and attempting to synthesize vernacular heritage. The objective of this research is to study indigenous human congruent architectural examples and their relationship with intangible aspects of habitat. This paper will be adapting a qualitative method, by which it aims to study and observe various examples so as to analyze interconnections of Siberian Chums and Native-American Tipi, their design driving forces, settlement of the 2nd century BC- Arkaim and Japanese traditional architecture. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4714 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Vernacular architecture bears climate-efficient regional and time proven sustainable systems, the analysis of which can benefit locally oriented modern architecture. Through the study of various examples, one can notice the firm presence of spiritual aspects, religious or pagan believes as driving forces of dwellings’ planning. Space will always remain to be very influential to the quality of human life that is based on intangible psychological aspects and habitual traditions. Importance of vernacular architecture’s preservation is indisputable, it absorbs to reflect culture and traditions performing as a living historical evidence. Thus analyzing extant vernacular architectural forms and venturing into their inner space organizations this study seeks to identify the unifying principle. The case of Siberians and Native American inhabitants’ architecture similarities is not a coincidence, it is another proof of cultures’ links on a par with language analogies proposed by Edward Vajda and detailed DNA analysis held by the Centre for GeoGenetics. As two distantly evolving communities, Siberian including Nenets, Evenks, Navkhs, Yuits, Kereks and Native Americans or so-called Indians have same believes, shamanic background and therefore architectural analogies shown in Chums and Tipis. Centralization of fire, noticed in Japanese architecture and so common for Zoroastrian architecture is seen in both of previously noted vernacular dwellings’ examples as well as in another case of research, the Bronze Age settlement of Arkaim inhabited by Agni-worshipers. Studied in light of cultural connectivity through the intangible background of spaces design by first architects, its religious aspect may link it with present-day differentiated cultures and arise more research possibilities. 2. Siberian Chum – the life center of Nenets people Siberia region of Russia has exceptional architectural treasures, carefully transferred to the modern world by the indigenous population of this region. The example of chums is referred to Middle Siberia inhabited by Nenets tribes, also noticed in the cultures of Hasova, Samoeds, Evenks, Navkhs and Uraks. Yamal peninsula, the place where Nenet people abide, is not an exception for the impetus of infrastructure in the 21st century. Local research conducted by Boyarsky and Stolyarov (2000) shows that Yaman peninsula, and Vaigach Island in particular, was preserved and guarded by locals in the past because of its significance and sacred meaning. Moreover, as R. Jones, a member of S. Borrough’s expedition held in 1556, wrote: “wild Samoyeds live there, not allowing Russians to land”. (Boyarsky, Stolyarov, 2000, p. 30) However, inducing an economic interest nowadays, the region inhabited by Nenets is under the process of new development. With the construction of Obskaya-Bovanenkovo railway line, which is the northernmost in the world, Yamal Project has already impacted the local land ecosystem and the nomadic pace of Samoyedic life that was followed for centuries by disrupting their migration routes. Chance and Andreeva point on the problematic situation in the Russian North, saying that nowadays it is experiencing most dramatic environmental devastation that directs to the social disintegration. (N. A. Chance, E. N. Andreeva, 1995). The harsh climate with long winters and seasonal winds, severe waterlogging, and isolation forced ethnic group to adhere to their centuries’ nomadic routine solely dependent on hunting and deer keeping. Same as centuries ago, today Chum remains the center of Nenets’ lives, both habitual and sacred. However, this example shows that a vernacular dwelling preserves much more than a material architectural form. Detailed information was provided by the expedition of D. Andersons, in collaboration with the archaeological field research team of Dr. Viktor Vetrov of the Irktusk State Pedagogical University and Baikal- Hokkaido Archaeology Project (BAP) and then documented by Andersons. The author states that Evenk’s cone-shaped dwelling is an example of “how vernacular architecture reflected social structure” (2, 2006). An influential work done by Shirokogoroff (1929) unveils details of the indigenous pace of life and the meaning behind its details, providing “an early authoritative schematic of the structure of a conical lodge with its distinctive pattern of names, which in turn implied certain roles to men, women and to guests”. (1929, pp. 255–256). 2.1. Spiritual understanding of the world behind the spatial organizations of the dwelling. Same as in the previous century, modern chums bear the original vernacular exterior and interior spatial organization that have carried traditions, language and religion by the definite interdependence between form and function. Similarly as for inhabitants of North America or Canadian Plains, most aspects of Nenets’ life are interlinked with shamanism and this belief is shared among most of the aboriginal cultures of Siberia. In shamanism, the world differentiated into three partials: the sky, the land, and the underground are believed to be inhabited by human souls as well as by many other spirits, gods, protectors, and helpers that only shaman can reach to. For aboriginals of Siberia their self-eidolon was not differentiated from animals. It is important to mention that images of the world tree, the bear and the bird play a significant role in their life and folklore. (Mchedlov, et al., 2002) Despite forced Christianization, Siberian aboriginals preserved their religious and cultural identity, animism, totemism and shamanism, thanks to the successive mode of life and continuous direct dependence from nature. Chum, the resultant of nomadic Nenets’ life has always remained habitual and sacred central element. The dismountable dwelling’s spatial arrangement goes in accordance with shamanic order, hierarchy of the clan and gives meaning to all the dwellings’ elements.

Perspectives

Vernacular Architectural Preservation of Material and Spiritual Interconnected Cultural Heritage * B.A. ALMIRA KHAFIZOVA Department of Architecture, Girne American University, Turkey E mail: halmirah@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T Vernacular architecture presents sustainable minimum-impact structures harmonized with their context and inhabitants. Heritage preserved tangible and intangible in material forms, encrypted spiritual believes of humanity's life in dwellings’ organization unveiling the details of our ancestors’ life and world cultures’ connectivity. Instigated by modern-world urbanization, sustainability and cultural diversity issues, the study is researching on cultures connectivity, corresponding to the scale and context of the global cityscape and attempting to synthesize vernacular heritage. The objective of this research is to study indigenous human congruent architectural examples and their relationship with intangible aspects of habitat. This paper will be adapting a qualitative method, by which it aims to study and observe various examples so as to analyze interconnections of Siberian Chums and Native-American Tipi, their design driving forces, settlement of the 2nd century BC- Arkaim and Japanese traditional architecture. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4714 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Vernacular architecture bears climate-efficient regional and time proven sustainable systems, the analysis of which can benefit locally oriented modern architecture. Through the study of various examples, one can notice the firm presence of spiritual aspects, religious or pagan believes as driving forces of dwellings’ planning. Space will always remain to be very influential to the quality of human life that is based on intangible psychological aspects and habitual traditions. Importance of vernacular architecture’s preservation is indisputable, it absorbs to reflect culture and traditions performing as a living historical evidence. Thus analyzing extant vernacular architectural forms and venturing into their inner space organizations this study seeks to identify the unifying principle. The case of Siberians and Native American inhabitants’ architecture similarities is not a coincidence, it is another proof of cultures’ links on a par with language analogies proposed by Edward Vajda and detailed DNA analysis held by the Centre for GeoGenetics. As two distantly evolving communities, Siberian including Nenets, Evenks, Navkhs, Yuits, Kereks and Native Americans or so-called Indians have same believes, shamanic background and therefore architectural analogies shown in Chums and Tipis. Centralization of fire, noticed in Japanese architecture and so common for Zoroastrian architecture is seen in both of previously noted vernacular dwellings’ examples as well as in another case of research, the Bronze Age settlement of Arkaim inhabited by Agni-worshipers. Studied in light of cultural connectivity through the intangible background of spaces design by first architects, its religious aspect may link it with present-day differentiated cultures and arise more research possibilities. 2. Siberian Chum – the life center of Nenets people Siberia region of Russia has exceptional architectural treasures, carefully transferred to the modern world by the indigenous population of this region. The example of chums is referred to Middle Siberia inhabited by Nenets tribes, also noticed in the cultures of Hasova, Samoeds, Evenks, Navkhs and Uraks. Yamal peninsula, the place where Nenet people abide, is not an exception for the impetus of infrastructure in the 21st century. Local research conducted by Boyarsky and Stolyarov (2000) shows that Yaman peninsula, and Vaigach Island in particular, was preserved and guarded by locals in the past because of its significance and sacred meaning. Moreover, as R. Jones, a member of S. Borrough’s expedition held in 1556, wrote: “wild Samoyeds live there, not allowing Russians to land”. (Boyarsky, Stolyarov, 2000, p. 30) However, inducing an economic interest nowadays, the region inhabited by Nenets is under the process of new development. With the construction of Obskaya-Bovanenkovo railway line, which is the northernmost in the world, Yamal Project has already impacted the local land ecosystem and the nomadic pace of Samoyedic life that was followed for centuries by disrupting their migration routes. Chance and Andreeva point on the problematic situation in the Russian North, saying that nowadays it is experiencing most dramatic environmental devastation that directs to the social disintegration. (N. A. Chance, E. N. Andreeva, 1995). The harsh climate with long winters and seasonal winds, severe waterlogging, and isolation forced ethnic group to adhere to their centuries’ nomadic routine solely dependent on hunting and deer keeping. Same as centuries ago, today Chum remains the center of Nenets’ lives, both habitual and sacred. However, this example shows that a vernacular dwelling preserves much more than a material architectural form. Detailed information was provided by the expedition of D. Andersons, in collaboration with the archaeological field research team of Dr. Viktor Vetrov of the Irktusk State Pedagogical University and Baikal- Hokkaido Archaeology Project (BAP) and then documented by Andersons. The author states that Evenk’s cone-shaped dwelling is an example of “how vernacular architecture reflected social structure” (2, 2006). An influential work done by Shirokogoroff (1929) unveils details of the indigenous pace of life and the meaning behind its details, providing “an early authoritative schematic of the structure of a conical lodge with its distinctive pattern of names, which in turn implied certain roles to men, women and to guests”. (1929, pp. 255–256). 2.1. Spiritual understanding of the world behind the spatial organizations of the dwelling. Same as in the previous century, modern chums bear the original vernacular exterior and interior spatial organization that have carried traditions, language and religion by the definite interdependence between form and function. Similarly as for inhabitants of North America or Canadian Plains, most aspects of Nenets’ life are interlinked with shamanism and this belief is shared among most of the aboriginal cultures of Siberia. In shamanism, the world differentiated into three partials: the sky, the land, and the underground are believed to be inhabited by human souls as well as by many other spirits, gods, protectors, and helpers that only shaman can reach to. For aboriginals of Siberia their self-eidolon was not differentiated from animals. It is important to mention that images of the world tree, the bear and the bird play a significant role in their life and folklore. (Mchedlov, et al., 2002) Despite forced Christianization, Siberian aboriginals preserved their religious and cultural identity, animism, totemism and shamanism, thanks to the successive mode of life and continuous direct dependence from nature. Chum, the resultant of nomadic Nenets’ life has always remained habitual and sacred central element. The dismountable dwelling’s spatial arrangement goes in accordance with shamanic order, hierarchy of the clan and gives meaning to all the dwellings’ elements.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Vernacular Architectural Preservation of Material and Spiritual Interconnected Cultural Heritage, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, November 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4714.
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