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A B S T R A C T Energy efficient and sustainable design of public buildings aims to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy resources by promoting thermally and visually comfortable spaces. Integrated shading devices as part of a passive system is desirable to the successful design of energy conserving buildings. However, limited research exists on the adaptive qualities of shading devices as employed in the public buildings of North Cyprus. This research discusses the adaptive application of shading devices in public buildings within Famagusta, questioning the contextual use and suitability of PSDs in terms of application. To achieve this, two prominent public buildings in Famagusta (EMU Rectorate building and Lemar shopping mall) were reviewed, presenting findings from shading analysis of a comparative study. A qualitative and quantitative research methodology was adopted for this investigation. Questionnaires were used for data collection, and for analysis, SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected. Findings show a 94% user discomfort with the indoor thermal levels, which corresponds to higher shading demand from the users, at the EMU Rectorate building. The Lemar building survey indicates satisfaction with the levels of indoor thermal comfort, but 86% indicate the partially shaded South-Western building parts are hardest to cool.

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Adaptive Use of Passive Shading Devices in Public Buildings: A Case of Famagusta 1 Ph.D. Candidate KENNEDY ONYEKA CHINWEOKWU & 2 Dr. HALIL ZAFER ALIBABA 1& 2Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey 1E mail: ikonkenn@yahoo.com , 2E mail: halil.alibaba@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Energy efficient and sustainable design of public buildings aims to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy resources by promoting thermally and visually comfortable spaces. Integrated shading devices as part of a passive system is desirable to the successful design of energy conserving buildings. However, limited research exists on the adaptive qualities of shading devices as employed in the public buildings of North Cyprus. This research discusses the adaptive application of shading devices in public buildings within Famagusta, questioning the contextual use and suitability of PSDs in terms of application. To achieve this, two prominent public buildings in Famagusta (EMU Rectorate building and Lemar shopping mall) were reviewed, presenting findings from shading analysis of a comparative study. A qualitative and quantitative research methodology was adopted for this investigation. Questionnaires were used for data collection, and for analysis, SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected. Findings show a 94% user discomfort with the indoor thermal levels, which corresponds to higher shading demand from the users, at the EMU Rectorate building. The Lemar building survey indicates satisfaction with the levels of indoor thermal comfort, but 86% indicate the partially shaded South-Western building parts are hardest to cool. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 1-9 https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4713 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The amount of sunlight admitted into a building in warm sunny climates may result in high cooling energy consumption when excessive; Southern and Western oriented windows may permit sustained sunlight which results in passive heating. In nearly all climates controlling and diffusing natural illumination will improve daylighting. The use of external shades in building facades is known to contribute to a decrease in a building’s energy consumption and to improve users’ visual comfort. This is achieved by controlling the level of sun radiation and daylighting on a building’s exterior walls and within the building’s interior (Prowler, 2008). The employment of passive building concept for attaining thermal comfort inside a building is a growing concern for the building energy protection. The fundamental principle is to provide shading devices as part of location, size and orientation to require most advantage of the surroundings and indoor thermal (Chan, Riffat et al. 2010). Passive solar design strategies, as part of a larger solution to current sustainability issues in the world, demand an environmentally friendly and responsible approach in design. Therefore, the adaptive integration of PSDs into the design of buildings seeks to provide comfort and energy savings, thereby solving direct and indirect cost loads (Kats, 2003). Famagusta is a fast-growing city in Northern Cyprus, an internationally un-recognized developing country which has serious environmental problems. Studies have highlighted the most important environmental problems in the country as Energy problem, Lack of planning, Water pollution, and Environmental pollution, Waste, and Soil pollution in descending order (Eminer et al, 2014). Sustainable Energy policies for the Mediterranean region demand the use of passive strategies for the heating and cooling requirements in the summer and winter periods, to reduce the use of non-renewable fossil fuels to power mechanized thermal comfort systems. Considering the energy challenges of the region, this case study research aims to analyze the bioclimatic use of PSDs in public buildings of Famagusta, North Cyprus and to achieve this, two public buildings (Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) Rectorate Office Building and Lemar Shopping Mall) were selected for review based on their application of PSDs. The appropriateness of shading devices employed on both cases was compared for efficiency considering factors like climate, solar orientation and energy performance. PSDs adapted to the Mediterranean climate of Famagusta should feature deep shade that protects the glazed regions and general mass of (often expansive) public buildings from unwanted heat gains, but should be dynamic enough to admit sunlight in the cooler months. A review of shading devices and their regional adaptive qualities is discussed contextually, with a brief examination of the climatic conditions in Famagusta. The highlight of this research presents a comparative result of the influence of various passive shading devices. It further reveals the key suitability factors and application dimensions thereof, which informs suggestions on optimal shading devices in the context. A qualitative and quantitative research methodology was adopted for this investigation. Data collection was done by comparative analysis regarding information derived from observation, and qualitative survey by questionnaire has been carried out to assess the user perception of thermal comfort in both buildings. SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected and analysis performed to attain facilitate outcomes. 2. Literature Review Through the architecture history and related cultures from classical to unrefined vernacular structures, shading has had various advantages that can be found in its applications to history (Sadler, 2005). The use of external shades in buildings influences various quantifiable and perceptual performance criteria. Among these criteria are energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting; the amount and distribution of daylight; glare effect; the feeling of comfort and the productivity of the building’s users. Some of these criteria can create contradictory demands, such as the need for internal daylight illumination, which can reduce the need for artificial illumination but simultaneously increase the heat gain (Nielsen, Svendsen, and Jensen 2011). To reduce artificial energy requirements for achieving indoor thermal comfort, intelligent building construction with approach of passive solar architecture is needed. (Ralegaonkar and Gupta, 2010). Shading devices are the instruments used to reduce the incident radiation to supply thermally comfortable surroundings whereas decreasing the cooling load considerably. That is, shading devices reject the direct radiation and permit the diffuse element solely to be admitted (Duffie, 2013). Cyprus, one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean has no petroleum reserves and is completely dependent on imported energy from petroleum products (AbuGrain & Alibaba, 2017). Sustainability issues and climate change as an effect of the use of fossil fuels are at the forefront of world issues. A practical 100% solution to these problems have not been developed, however it is clear that renewable energy solutions should spearhead the movement for its reconciliation. Solar strategy design in construction aims to control the flow of natural energy within the built environment thereby reducing mineral generated energy consumption and the attendant pollution emissions while ensuring a better quality of built environment. An optimum shading device demonstrates a system providing maximum shading for a special period throughout the year (summer), while allowing maximum solar radiation in winter (Bader 2013).

Perspectives

Adaptive Use of Passive Shading Devices in Public Buildings: A Case of Famagusta 1 Ph.D. Candidate KENNEDY ONYEKA CHINWEOKWU & 2 Dr. HALIL ZAFER ALIBABA 1& 2Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey 1E mail: ikonkenn@yahoo.com , 2E mail: halil.alibaba@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Energy efficient and sustainable design of public buildings aims to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy resources by promoting thermally and visually comfortable spaces. Integrated shading devices as part of a passive system is desirable to the successful design of energy conserving buildings. However, limited research exists on the adaptive qualities of shading devices as employed in the public buildings of North Cyprus. This research discusses the adaptive application of shading devices in public buildings within Famagusta, questioning the contextual use and suitability of PSDs in terms of application. To achieve this, two prominent public buildings in Famagusta (EMU Rectorate building and Lemar shopping mall) were reviewed, presenting findings from shading analysis of a comparative study. A qualitative and quantitative research methodology was adopted for this investigation. Questionnaires were used for data collection, and for analysis, SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected. Findings show a 94% user discomfort with the indoor thermal levels, which corresponds to higher shading demand from the users, at the EMU Rectorate building. The Lemar building survey indicates satisfaction with the levels of indoor thermal comfort, but 86% indicate the partially shaded South-Western building parts are hardest to cool. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 1-9 https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4713 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The amount of sunlight admitted into a building in warm sunny climates may result in high cooling energy consumption when excessive; Southern and Western oriented windows may permit sustained sunlight which results in passive heating. In nearly all climates controlling and diffusing natural illumination will improve daylighting. The use of external shades in building facades is known to contribute to a decrease in a building’s energy consumption and to improve users’ visual comfort. This is achieved by controlling the level of sun radiation and daylighting on a building’s exterior walls and within the building’s interior (Prowler, 2008). The employment of passive building concept for attaining thermal comfort inside a building is a growing concern for the building energy protection. The fundamental principle is to provide shading devices as part of location, size and orientation to require most advantage of the surroundings and indoor thermal (Chan, Riffat et al. 2010). Passive solar design strategies, as part of a larger solution to current sustainability issues in the world, demand an environmentally friendly and responsible approach in design. Therefore, the adaptive integration of PSDs into the design of buildings seeks to provide comfort and energy savings, thereby solving direct and indirect cost loads (Kats, 2003). Famagusta is a fast-growing city in Northern Cyprus, an internationally un-recognized developing country which has serious environmental problems. Studies have highlighted the most important environmental problems in the country as Energy problem, Lack of planning, Water pollution, and Environmental pollution, Waste, and Soil pollution in descending order (Eminer et al, 2014). Sustainable Energy policies for the Mediterranean region demand the use of passive strategies for the heating and cooling requirements in the summer and winter periods, to reduce the use of non-renewable fossil fuels to power mechanized thermal comfort systems. Considering the energy challenges of the region, this case study research aims to analyze the bioclimatic use of PSDs in public buildings of Famagusta, North Cyprus and to achieve this, two public buildings (Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) Rectorate Office Building and Lemar Shopping Mall) were selected for review based on their application of PSDs. The appropriateness of shading devices employed on both cases was compared for efficiency considering factors like climate, solar orientation and energy performance. PSDs adapted to the Mediterranean climate of Famagusta should feature deep shade that protects the glazed regions and general mass of (often expansive) public buildings from unwanted heat gains, but should be dynamic enough to admit sunlight in the cooler months. A review of shading devices and their regional adaptive qualities is discussed contextually, with a brief examination of the climatic conditions in Famagusta. The highlight of this research presents a comparative result of the influence of various passive shading devices. It further reveals the key suitability factors and application dimensions thereof, which informs suggestions on optimal shading devices in the context. A qualitative and quantitative research methodology was adopted for this investigation. Data collection was done by comparative analysis regarding information derived from observation, and qualitative survey by questionnaire has been carried out to assess the user perception of thermal comfort in both buildings. SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected and analysis performed to attain facilitate outcomes. 2. Literature Review Through the architecture history and related cultures from classical to unrefined vernacular structures, shading has had various advantages that can be found in its applications to history (Sadler, 2005). The use of external shades in buildings influences various quantifiable and perceptual performance criteria. Among these criteria are energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting; the amount and distribution of daylight; glare effect; the feeling of comfort and the productivity of the building’s users. Some of these criteria can create contradictory demands, such as the need for internal daylight illumination, which can reduce the need for artificial illumination but simultaneously increase the heat gain (Nielsen, Svendsen, and Jensen 2011). To reduce artificial energy requirements for achieving indoor thermal comfort, intelligent building construction with approach of passive solar architecture is needed. (Ralegaonkar and Gupta, 2010). Shading devices are the instruments used to reduce the incident radiation to supply thermally comfortable surroundings whereas decreasing the cooling load considerably. That is, shading devices reject the direct radiation and permit the diffuse element solely to be admitted (Duffie, 2013). Cyprus, one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean has no petroleum reserves and is completely dependent on imported energy from petroleum products (AbuGrain & Alibaba, 2017). Sustainability issues and climate change as an effect of the use of fossil fuels are at the forefront of world issues. A practical 100% solution to these problems have not been developed, however it is clear that renewable energy solutions should spearhead the movement for its reconciliation. Solar strategy design in construction aims to control the flow of natural energy within the built environment thereby reducing mineral generated energy consumption and the attendant pollution emissions while ensuring a better quality of built environment. An optimum shading device demonstrates a system providing maximum shading for a special period throughout the year (summer), while allowing maximum solar radiation in winter (Bader 2013).

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Adaptive Use of Passive Shading Devices in Public Buildings: A Case of Famagusta, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, November 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4713.
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