What is it about?

A B S T R A C T Most ofHousing is one of the fundamental needs for human to respond their primary needs such as food, rest, cleaning and having family, in other words every thing that related to the needs of body and soul of human. Nowadays by increasing the population in the world the suitable shelter become a real problem. In the point of economic also the prices of the houses increase too much so its not affordable for low-income people to have shelter easily. After the revolution in Iran country there is a huge immigration from the rural part to metropolitan areas. Most of these peoples belong to low-income family, new couples and labors. Governments try to solve this problem by creating some policies. Mehr houses is a kind of affordable housing which is the policy of the 9th and 10th government urban and city program. Most of these type of houses located out of city centers, in suburbs. The location reduces the quality and satisfaction of the citizens about these type of houses. This election of the land cause decreases the success of government about their policy. The aim of this study is to analyzing the crime in affordable houses that located in suburbs area. This research will answer the important factor that cause crime in affordable housing in suburban’s. The case study in this research is Mehr houses that created for low-income people in Iran. This research analyzed the factors which may cause to raise the crime in that area based on the literature review and previous analysis by different theories in this field. Data is collected by literature review, news, books, papers. The result of this research confirm the possibility of Mehr affordable houses in suburbs transfer to the area that raise the crime.

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The Rise of Crimein Affordable Housing in Suburbs, Case of Iran * Ph.D. CandidateMARYAM GHASEMI1 1 Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Via Mersin 10 Turkey E mail: maryam.ghasemi@cc.emu.edu.tr A B S T R A C T Most ofHousing is one of the fundamental needs for human to respond their primary needs such as food, rest, cleaning and having family, in other words every thing that related to the needs of body and soul of human. Nowadays by increasing the population in the world the suitable shelter become a real problem. In the point of economic also the prices of the houses increase too much so its not affordable for low-income people to have shelter easily. After the revolution in Iran country there is a huge immigration from the rural part to metropolitan areas. Most of these peoples belong to low-income family, new couples and labors. Governments try to solve this problem by creating some policies. Mehr houses is a kind of affordable housing which is the policy of the 9th and 10th government urban and city program. Most of these type of houses located out of city centers, in suburbs. The location reduces the quality and satisfaction of the citizens about these type of houses. This election of the land cause decreases the success of government about their policy. The aim of this study is to analyzing the crime in affordable houses that located in suburbs area. This research will answer the important factor that cause crime in affordable housing in suburban’s. The case study in this research is Mehr houses that created for low-income people in Iran. This research analyzed the factors which may cause to raise the crime in that area based on the literature review and previous analysis by different theories in this field. Data is collected by literature review, news, books, papers. The result of this research confirm the possibility of Mehr affordable houses in suburbs transfer to the area that raise the crime. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 137-143https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4710 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Shelter is one of the most important essential needs and legal rights of human being. Dwelling could protect the citizens from the cold and hot weather, animals and social harmful factors in the society. According to the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements in 1996 the one fifth of people in the world are suffering from the low quality. Some of the people don’t have any house. They live in shanty places that caused important problem for health of family. They also increased the crime in world (Kjellstrom, 2007). After the industrial revolution, Urbanization process has grown increasingly. Parallel to this issue the lack of housing is grew up (Hardin, 2009). In other view lack of housing is the important problem from the ancient time for human being. In different periods the governments try to find some solution to decrease the deterioration of this problem. In different countries there are some solution for this problem. The lack of housing in under developing countries is much more important and problematic. Iran as an under- developing andthird world countries by creating some policies attempt to help the citizens to have the best condition for their houses. One of these policies is Mehr houses project. Beginning of this idea goes back to 2007, from the ninth and tenth housing and urban policy program in Iran (Alipour, 2015). The major typicality of Mehr houses is that the government removed land prices. Due to this policy most of these projects is out of the city centers and in suburban’s. This cause an important problem for the citizens (Ivani, 2014). Assistant director of urban and city development in Iran said that the Mehr houses become a modern suburban’s. This could be so harmful for urban and city development. He mentioned that to have a better city, we have to focus on physical structure of the city. It is also essential to attention to social quality of the houses. From other view, suburban areas due to their unfavorable environmental situation and elements, and social and cultural heterogeneous tissue, are known as most fertile areas of crime (URL 1). Most citizens in these houses belong to low-income people. These people categorized as new couples, the ones under the poverty line or a little above. These people their economic life is not easy (Karshenasan, 2013). The other groups that they lived in Mehr houses are immigrants from the rural part or small cities to big cities. They do this immigration to have better job and quality of life. 2.Theoretical Background In this part of the study, the author gives some theoretical information about the housing and their environment. One of the theorist which is talked about suburban was Robert E Park. Park in the paper “Human migration and marginalized man” Mentioned that suburban is the result of the economical and political operation (Park, 1928). The other study is belonging to Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth. They stated that the reason caused the suburban is concentration of the poor people in the area that there is no any facility (Pickvance, 2013). In the liberal view, phenomenology of the suburban areas as a reality is acceptable. They try to find some solution to have better quality in these areas. They terminated suburban topic by giving the land in different shape, give the loan and also control the government land (Rogers, 2011). The forward thinkers were introduced the title that is called “aviary housing” that they are known as un residential functional which located in residential area (Battle-Fisher, 2014). Social relation is one of the essential needs for tenants. These need will be answered by different functional services next to their dwellings. These accommodations are part of the daily life and they should be accessible for every one. Lack of access easily to these facilities cause health problem such as physical and spiritual. These services categorized as therapeutic services, kindergarten, schools, daily bazars, entertainment services. It is advised that the location of these functions in the housing area could be possible while the streets are omitted. Different functions should not exist in the same areas and the houses area should be separated from these functional services (Doroudi, 2014). There is another view that is belong to health of soul. This theory is against the previous one. Most attention is based on health of soul instead of environmental needs. This theory believes that using the forward thinker’s theory in housing and cities make the place non-dynamic, uniform and eerie and caused undesirable attitude from the citizens that could harm to soul health of the citizens. The main idea of this theory is categorized as: 1. emotional dynamics of space and environment, 2. attention to principle of neighborly relations as maintaining the values and traditions, 3. attention to principles of streets as physical solid foundation of city. One of the prominent thinkers in this field is Jane Jacobs. Based on her idea if the urban neighborhoods are more diverse get more attractive. She beliefs that it is better in every district more than two functions exist. She also mentioned, it is better to mix the residential function and commercial function together. The stores located in the ground floors of apartments and the upper floors belong to the residential function (Jacob, 1961). This theory makes the place much more safe than the previous theory.

Perspectives

The Rise of Crimein Affordable Housing in Suburbs, Case of Iran * Ph.D. CandidateMARYAM GHASEMI1 1 Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Via Mersin 10 Turkey E mail: maryam.ghasemi@cc.emu.edu.tr A B S T R A C T Most ofHousing is one of the fundamental needs for human to respond their primary needs such as food, rest, cleaning and having family, in other words every thing that related to the needs of body and soul of human. Nowadays by increasing the population in the world the suitable shelter become a real problem. In the point of economic also the prices of the houses increase too much so its not affordable for low-income people to have shelter easily. After the revolution in Iran country there is a huge immigration from the rural part to metropolitan areas. Most of these peoples belong to low-income family, new couples and labors. Governments try to solve this problem by creating some policies. Mehr houses is a kind of affordable housing which is the policy of the 9th and 10th government urban and city program. Most of these type of houses located out of city centers, in suburbs. The location reduces the quality and satisfaction of the citizens about these type of houses. This election of the land cause decreases the success of government about their policy. The aim of this study is to analyzing the crime in affordable houses that located in suburbs area. This research will answer the important factor that cause crime in affordable housing in suburban’s. The case study in this research is Mehr houses that created for low-income people in Iran. This research analyzed the factors which may cause to raise the crime in that area based on the literature review and previous analysis by different theories in this field. Data is collected by literature review, news, books, papers. The result of this research confirm the possibility of Mehr affordable houses in suburbs transfer to the area that raise the crime. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 137-143https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4710 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Shelter is one of the most important essential needs and legal rights of human being. Dwelling could protect the citizens from the cold and hot weather, animals and social harmful factors in the society. According to the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements in 1996 the one fifth of people in the world are suffering from the low quality. Some of the people don’t have any house. They live in shanty places that caused important problem for health of family. They also increased the crime in world (Kjellstrom, 2007). After the industrial revolution, Urbanization process has grown increasingly. Parallel to this issue the lack of housing is grew up (Hardin, 2009). In other view lack of housing is the important problem from the ancient time for human being. In different periods the governments try to find some solution to decrease the deterioration of this problem. In different countries there are some solution for this problem. The lack of housing in under developing countries is much more important and problematic. Iran as an under- developing andthird world countries by creating some policies attempt to help the citizens to have the best condition for their houses. One of these policies is Mehr houses project. Beginning of this idea goes back to 2007, from the ninth and tenth housing and urban policy program in Iran (Alipour, 2015). The major typicality of Mehr houses is that the government removed land prices. Due to this policy most of these projects is out of the city centers and in suburban’s. This cause an important problem for the citizens (Ivani, 2014). Assistant director of urban and city development in Iran said that the Mehr houses become a modern suburban’s. This could be so harmful for urban and city development. He mentioned that to have a better city, we have to focus on physical structure of the city. It is also essential to attention to social quality of the houses. From other view, suburban areas due to their unfavorable environmental situation and elements, and social and cultural heterogeneous tissue, are known as most fertile areas of crime (URL 1). Most citizens in these houses belong to low-income people. These people categorized as new couples, the ones under the poverty line or a little above. These people their economic life is not easy (Karshenasan, 2013). The other groups that they lived in Mehr houses are immigrants from the rural part or small cities to big cities. They do this immigration to have better job and quality of life. 2.Theoretical Background In this part of the study, the author gives some theoretical information about the housing and their environment. One of the theorist which is talked about suburban was Robert E Park. Park in the paper “Human migration and marginalized man” Mentioned that suburban is the result of the economical and political operation (Park, 1928). The other study is belonging to Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth. They stated that the reason caused the suburban is concentration of the poor people in the area that there is no any facility (Pickvance, 2013). In the liberal view, phenomenology of the suburban areas as a reality is acceptable. They try to find some solution to have better quality in these areas. They terminated suburban topic by giving the land in different shape, give the loan and also control the government land (Rogers, 2011). The forward thinkers were introduced the title that is called “aviary housing” that they are known as un residential functional which located in residential area (Battle-Fisher, 2014). Social relation is one of the essential needs for tenants. These need will be answered by different functional services next to their dwellings. These accommodations are part of the daily life and they should be accessible for every one. Lack of access easily to these facilities cause health problem such as physical and spiritual. These services categorized as therapeutic services, kindergarten, schools, daily bazars, entertainment services. It is advised that the location of these functions in the housing area could be possible while the streets are omitted. Different functions should not exist in the same areas and the houses area should be separated from these functional services (Doroudi, 2014). There is another view that is belong to health of soul. This theory is against the previous one. Most attention is based on health of soul instead of environmental needs. This theory believes that using the forward thinker’s theory in housing and cities make the place non-dynamic, uniform and eerie and caused undesirable attitude from the citizens that could harm to soul health of the citizens. The main idea of this theory is categorized as: 1. emotional dynamics of space and environment, 2. attention to principle of neighborly relations as maintaining the values and traditions, 3. attention to principles of streets as physical solid foundation of city. One of the prominent thinkers in this field is Jane Jacobs. Based on her idea if the urban neighborhoods are more diverse get more attractive. She beliefs that it is better in every district more than two functions exist. She also mentioned, it is better to mix the residential function and commercial function together. The stores located in the ground floors of apartments and the upper floors belong to the residential function (Jacob, 1961). This theory makes the place much more safe than the previous theory.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: The Rise of Crime in Affordable Housing in Suburbs, Case of Iran, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4710.
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