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A B S T R A C T Most of the cities around the world are dealing with different kinds of the problems such as social, environmental, economic and others. However, for many years, urban planners have attempted to find solutions that fit within the context and have put them into practice in order to shape the form of a city accordingly. One of the controversial problems which most of the developing and developed countries deal with it is urban sprawl, which affects everything and everyone in different scales. For last three decades, even in case of T.R.N. Cyprus, urban sprawl has become inevitable; urban sprawl is recognizable, sprawl construction becomes a profitable business for construction, real-estate, and others involved in this business. Unfortunately, some communities to realize their vision welcomed to urban sprawl construction and enthusiastically embrace it with open arm, such communities sacrifice sociability opportunity and vibrant neighborhood to those single-use towns which is one of the main characteristics is social exclusion and psychological problems, fundamentally one of the key factors can be found in lack of public awareness especially for who prefer to live in sprawl town. In T.R.N. Cyprus urban sprawl didn’t promote auto-dependency. Despite urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus have many repercussions, one of the important impacts which are considered in this articles are psychological impact of urban sprawl, also this article attempt to divide urban sprawl leaving condition into three phases, and promote the contemplate phase which makes sprawl inhabitants think and return to inner-city neighborhood again.

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Urban Sprawl Negative Impact: Enkomi Return Phase * Ph.D. candidate KAMYAR FULADLU1 & 2 1 Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus 2 School of Computing and Technology, Department of Construction Technology, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus E mail: kamyar_fuladlu@yahoo.com A R T I C L E I N F O: Article history: Received 28 March 2018 Accepted 26 April 2018 Available online 15 June 2018 Keywords: Public Awareness; Sprawl Impact; Sprawl Phases; Urban Sprawl . A B S T R A C T Most of the cities around the world are dealing with different kinds of the problems such as social, environmental, economic and others. However, for many years, urban planners have attempted to find solutions that fit within the context and have put them into practice in order to shape the form of a city accordingly. One of the controversial problems which most of the developing and developed countries deal with it is urban sprawl, which affects everything and everyone in different scales. For last three decades, even in case of T.R.N. Cyprus, urban sprawl has become inevitable; urban sprawl is recognizable, sprawl construction becomes a profitable business for construction, real-estate, and others involved in this business. Unfortunately, some communities to realize their vision welcomed to urban sprawl construction and enthusiastically embrace it with open arm, such communities sacrifice sociability opportunity and vibrant neighborhood to those single-use towns which is one of the main characteristics is social exclusion and psychological problems, fundamentally one of the key factors can be found in lack of public awareness especially for who prefer to live in sprawl town. In T.R.N. Cyprus urban sprawl didn’t promote auto-dependency. Despite urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus have many repercussions, one of the important impacts which are considered in this articles are psychological impact of urban sprawl, also this article attempt to divide urban sprawl leaving condition into three phases, and promote the contemplate phase which makes sprawl inhabitants think and return to inner-city neighborhood again. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4709 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction At first glance urban sprawl is a simple word, which means involving a wide range of professions and specialization, however it can be defined as scatter, unplanned, wasteful patterns development in suburban, this kind of construction out of the city boundaries has brought wide range of problematic issues such as ecological, environmental, psychological, social exclusion and fragmentation, loss of community, increase in household expense and so on. In most of the literature, urban sprawl is called as a multifaceted concept; most of the scholars and thinkers measure a variety of impact for this multifaceted phenomenon. Sprawl which is low development and this land development occurs at the edge of the urban location which is prompt auto-dependency. Sprawl attempts to transform thousands of acres of the green field into single-family and detached houses increasing the administrative cost for government in providing sufficient basic infrastructural amenities such as access way, sewer/water pipe etc. (Soule, 2006). History of the sprawl dates back to 1920s, people in America and northern parts of Europe, started moving out of the urban boundaries, people who are moved to suburbs were affluent and powerful. However, over a period of time, this became a mass movement. For instance, during the interwar period in London, tens of thousands households from medium income class of society and capable to move out from over-populated central neighborhoods relocated to row houses, single-family and detached houses in suburbs (Bruegmann, 2005). One of the main factors is overpopulation, everyday urban population grows and this growth is inevitable. The roots can be found in increasing the number of the immigrant to the urban and higher number of births than deaths are important factors and contribute to increasing of urban population (Bhatta, 2010) and this makes urban area crowded, urban area with massive and compact housing resulted in the decrease of greenery. On the other hand, the humanity based on historical recorded always has rural lifestyle experience, this scheme during the time transfer to the urban lifestyle. Despite now day’s again most of the people prefer to have rural lifestyle, one of the reasons is proximity to nature which is offer healthy life, majority of people, who live in crowded ill city want to escape and find their dream at countryside in order to get peaceful life which is not achievable at downtown, also people looking for houses with more privacy, bigger front yard with small garden (Iram, Rasool, Shahzad, & Saeed, 2012). In case of the northern Cyprus this trend also valid, most of the middle-income class and those who are from the affluent group of Cypriots community in order to realize their visions start to exodus into urban sprawl town and move out of city skirt, another supporting idea is, detached houses in sprawl town was cheaper and sweet, thus such fascinating will encourage them to immigrate, as it mentions such kind of the exodus mostly occur in affluent group of community, however, such trend can represent other repercussions which are social fragmentation and known as one of the important impact of urban sprawl to the society. On the other hand, constructions companies didn’t trade off their business, they moved towards promoting urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus, they attempt to realize dreams of people at the countryside at affordable land, of course in order to provide cheap houses, development will inevitably move creep beyond city boundaries. Whenever this sort of the low density and single-use developments out of the city border occur, they provide inadequate infrastructure which is not appropriate to provide sufficient services for newcomers and inhabitants nevertheless such kind of leakage somehow will be balanced by sprawl inhabitants base on auto-dependent to provide their primary necessity, hereof the turning point to the problem which is loaded by urban sprawl, everything starts to effected accordingly probably later on sprawl inhabitants get relevant reflects of sprawl in their lifestyle The aim of this article, focus on psychological impact for urban sprawl inhabitants and recognition the sprawl phases, this study as an objective consider the possibility of return phase as rescue process to bringing urban sprawl inhabitants into the neighborhood. Methodology of this article based on case study in “Turan Kaynak Sitesi” town (Figure 1) and its inhabitants in T.R.N. Cyprus as well as problem solving and attempt to filling literature gaps, especially in this subject there is lack of relevant literature in this subject which encourages urban sprawl inhabitants to return again into inner neighborhood. 2. Literature Review One of the significant and also important evidence about cities from the many years ago until today shows that there was the enormous difference between rural and urban lifestyle. Within the fortification city exactly like most of early cities, always visitors face with a very dense cluster with mass of buildings, narrow streets with cul-de-sac, and also a vibrant with variety of rich dynamic urban life which is offer to visit lots of option and this makes lots of choice for especially those who capable to get them (Bruegmann, 2005). In opposite point of the dense cluster there is disregard trend of urban sprawl and become a primary method of urban expansion of course because of the negative effect in social, environmental and economy most of them scholar criticize it especially during recent years (Daneshpour & Shakibamanesh, 2011). On the other hand, sprawl intensify the cost of infrastructure in several manners in order to provide services for the fewer household government should provide their necessity such as road, water, and sewer if development was compact instead of sprawl, same cost amount can supply more households (Burchell, Downs, McCann, & Mukherji, 2005).

Perspectives

Urban Sprawl Negative Impact: Enkomi Return Phase * Ph.D. candidate KAMYAR FULADLU1 & 2 1 Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus 2 School of Computing and Technology, Department of Construction Technology, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus E mail: kamyar_fuladlu@yahoo.com A R T I C L E I N F O: Article history: Received 28 March 2018 Accepted 26 April 2018 Available online 15 June 2018 Keywords: Public Awareness; Sprawl Impact; Sprawl Phases; Urban Sprawl . A B S T R A C T Most of the cities around the world are dealing with different kinds of the problems such as social, environmental, economic and others. However, for many years, urban planners have attempted to find solutions that fit within the context and have put them into practice in order to shape the form of a city accordingly. One of the controversial problems which most of the developing and developed countries deal with it is urban sprawl, which affects everything and everyone in different scales. For last three decades, even in case of T.R.N. Cyprus, urban sprawl has become inevitable; urban sprawl is recognizable, sprawl construction becomes a profitable business for construction, real-estate, and others involved in this business. Unfortunately, some communities to realize their vision welcomed to urban sprawl construction and enthusiastically embrace it with open arm, such communities sacrifice sociability opportunity and vibrant neighborhood to those single-use towns which is one of the main characteristics is social exclusion and psychological problems, fundamentally one of the key factors can be found in lack of public awareness especially for who prefer to live in sprawl town. In T.R.N. Cyprus urban sprawl didn’t promote auto-dependency. Despite urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus have many repercussions, one of the important impacts which are considered in this articles are psychological impact of urban sprawl, also this article attempt to divide urban sprawl leaving condition into three phases, and promote the contemplate phase which makes sprawl inhabitants think and return to inner-city neighborhood again. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4709 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction At first glance urban sprawl is a simple word, which means involving a wide range of professions and specialization, however it can be defined as scatter, unplanned, wasteful patterns development in suburban, this kind of construction out of the city boundaries has brought wide range of problematic issues such as ecological, environmental, psychological, social exclusion and fragmentation, loss of community, increase in household expense and so on. In most of the literature, urban sprawl is called as a multifaceted concept; most of the scholars and thinkers measure a variety of impact for this multifaceted phenomenon. Sprawl which is low development and this land development occurs at the edge of the urban location which is prompt auto-dependency. Sprawl attempts to transform thousands of acres of the green field into single-family and detached houses increasing the administrative cost for government in providing sufficient basic infrastructural amenities such as access way, sewer/water pipe etc. (Soule, 2006). History of the sprawl dates back to 1920s, people in America and northern parts of Europe, started moving out of the urban boundaries, people who are moved to suburbs were affluent and powerful. However, over a period of time, this became a mass movement. For instance, during the interwar period in London, tens of thousands households from medium income class of society and capable to move out from over-populated central neighborhoods relocated to row houses, single-family and detached houses in suburbs (Bruegmann, 2005). One of the main factors is overpopulation, everyday urban population grows and this growth is inevitable. The roots can be found in increasing the number of the immigrant to the urban and higher number of births than deaths are important factors and contribute to increasing of urban population (Bhatta, 2010) and this makes urban area crowded, urban area with massive and compact housing resulted in the decrease of greenery. On the other hand, the humanity based on historical recorded always has rural lifestyle experience, this scheme during the time transfer to the urban lifestyle. Despite now day’s again most of the people prefer to have rural lifestyle, one of the reasons is proximity to nature which is offer healthy life, majority of people, who live in crowded ill city want to escape and find their dream at countryside in order to get peaceful life which is not achievable at downtown, also people looking for houses with more privacy, bigger front yard with small garden (Iram, Rasool, Shahzad, & Saeed, 2012). In case of the northern Cyprus this trend also valid, most of the middle-income class and those who are from the affluent group of Cypriots community in order to realize their visions start to exodus into urban sprawl town and move out of city skirt, another supporting idea is, detached houses in sprawl town was cheaper and sweet, thus such fascinating will encourage them to immigrate, as it mentions such kind of the exodus mostly occur in affluent group of community, however, such trend can represent other repercussions which are social fragmentation and known as one of the important impact of urban sprawl to the society. On the other hand, constructions companies didn’t trade off their business, they moved towards promoting urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus, they attempt to realize dreams of people at the countryside at affordable land, of course in order to provide cheap houses, development will inevitably move creep beyond city boundaries. Whenever this sort of the low density and single-use developments out of the city border occur, they provide inadequate infrastructure which is not appropriate to provide sufficient services for newcomers and inhabitants nevertheless such kind of leakage somehow will be balanced by sprawl inhabitants base on auto-dependent to provide their primary necessity, hereof the turning point to the problem which is loaded by urban sprawl, everything starts to effected accordingly probably later on sprawl inhabitants get relevant reflects of sprawl in their lifestyle The aim of this article, focus on psychological impact for urban sprawl inhabitants and recognition the sprawl phases, this study as an objective consider the possibility of return phase as rescue process to bringing urban sprawl inhabitants into the neighborhood. Methodology of this article based on case study in “Turan Kaynak Sitesi” town (Figure 1) and its inhabitants in T.R.N. Cyprus as well as problem solving and attempt to filling literature gaps, especially in this subject there is lack of relevant literature in this subject which encourages urban sprawl inhabitants to return again into inner neighborhood. 2. Literature Review One of the significant and also important evidence about cities from the many years ago until today shows that there was the enormous difference between rural and urban lifestyle. Within the fortification city exactly like most of early cities, always visitors face with a very dense cluster with mass of buildings, narrow streets with cul-de-sac, and also a vibrant with variety of rich dynamic urban life which is offer to visit lots of option and this makes lots of choice for especially those who capable to get them (Bruegmann, 2005). In opposite point of the dense cluster there is disregard trend of urban sprawl and become a primary method of urban expansion of course because of the negative effect in social, environmental and economy most of them scholar criticize it especially during recent years (Daneshpour & Shakibamanesh, 2011). On the other hand, sprawl intensify the cost of infrastructure in several manners in order to provide services for the fewer household government should provide their necessity such as road, water, and sewer if development was compact instead of sprawl, same cost amount can supply more households (Burchell, Downs, McCann, & Mukherji, 2005).

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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