What is it about?

A B S T R A C T It is necessary for urban regeneration projects to be carried out successfully in coordination with other actors. During the process of realising regeneration, many actors and stategically-given decision plays a crucial role. The ways how actors/factors are involved in the process, the relationships founded among them and investigating the methods followed during the process constitute the content of this study. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach with regard to the coordination establised between actors/factors participated during the regeneration process. This study covers the regeneration activities realised in Fikirtepe and its surrounding area, and it aims to solve the relationships among the actors during the time of planning and applications by using semi-structured technique, one of the qualitative research methods, and detailed interviews. Thanks to the data gained from the detailed interviews effectiveness of the actors has been determined. By the help of the findings obtained from Fikirtepe region, the relationships and coordination among the actors has been revealed and a new approach has been created (and suggested) concerning the effectiveness and coordination.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

The Coordination of Actors in Urban Regeneration Projects: Fikirtepe, Istanbul, Turkey * Ph.D. candidate TUBA SARI HAKSEVER1, Dr. CANDAN ÇINAR ÇITAK2 1 & 2 Yildiz Technical University, İstanbul, Turkey 1E mail: tuubasari@gmail.com and 2E mail: candancinar@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T It is necessary for urban regeneration projects to be carried out successfully in coordination with other actors. During the process of realising regeneration, many actors and stategically-given decision plays a crucial role. The ways how actors/factors are involved in the process, the relationships founded among them and investigating the methods followed during the process constitute the content of this study. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach with regard to the coordination establised between actors/factors participated during the regeneration process. This study covers the regeneration activities realised in Fikirtepe and its surrounding area, and it aims to solve the relationships among the actors during the time of planning and applications by using semi-structured technique, one of the qualitative research methods, and detailed interviews. Thanks to the data gained from the detailed interviews effectiveness of the actors has been determined. By the help of the findings obtained from Fikirtepe region, the relationships and coordination among the actors has been revealed and a new approach has been created (and suggested) concerning the effectiveness and coordination. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4708 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The concept of urban transformation have emerged with the interventions made to regenerate the areas that had collapsed both in social and economic terms. These interventions were generally in the form of implementation of projects that will contribute to the economic development of the city in housing zones, old vacant ports and industrial zones where the population decline was observed or where low income groups live under poor economical and physical conditions (Ataöv and Osmay, 2007). In our country, the issue of urban transformation has become one of the most discussed and disputed topic with the problems of urbanization and settlement that became more visible specifically following the catastrophes in 1999 Marmara and Düzce earthquakes. (Kalağan and Çiftçi, 2012). When we take a look at the path of transformation in Turkey and legislative regulations made in parallel with this we see that urban transformation is defined as 'regeneration' but with the applications seen in time, the concept varied within itself and gained new dimensions. In order to have successful outcomes in urban transformation projects, it is necessary to carry out the transformation in a coordinated manner with all stakeholders. Multiple actors from local government to centralized management, and strategic decisions have a role in the transformation process. The approaches that these actors bring in throughout the urban transformation process, their relations and partnerships are the topics explored in this study. To analyze the relations of the actors in planning and implementation processes of the urban transformation projects carried out in the study area, Fikirtepe neighborhood and its vicinity, in-depth interviews were made using one of the qualitative research methods, the semi-structured interview technique. Multi-actor structure of the transformation projects in and around Fikirtepe makes it possible to determine urban transformation actors and the way actors are included in the process and to map the relations of these actors. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Definition and Sacope of Urban Transformation Urban transformation is defined as comprehensive vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in economic, physical, social and environmental conditions of an area that has been subject to change (Roberts/Sykes 2000). Urban area that undergoes a change may be a historical settlement, an industrial zone that lost its function or a housing zone with a lot of social and location related problems. The process that involves interventions made to economically, socially and physically resolve the problems of the region is generally referred to as "urban transformation". An urban transformation project should be based on detailed analysis of urban area's condition and effort should be made to reach an agreement with best possible engagement and cooperation of all related stakeholders in regeneration of the area (Roberts / Sykes 2000). In its UK experience, Turok (2005) associates urban transformation concept with three basic attributes. 1. It's objective is to change the nature of an area (space) and to involve the residents of the area and the other actors who have a say in the future of that area. 2. It covers various objectives and activities that intersects with basic functional responsibilities of the state depending on specific problems and potential of the area. 3. Special corporate structure of this partnership may change however it includes a structure that generally works among different stakeholders. Urban transformation practices now have a multi-actor structure different than the previous years. It is a multi-dimensional action process where a wide range of actors act together, rather than the applications involving only the public or private sector. The tree basic elements referred above can be listed as engagement, roles and responsibilities of the public and partnerships. 2.2. Actors, Associations And Engagements In The Urban Transformation Main actors involved in the urban transformation process are the public sector (centralized and local government), private sector, local residents, voluntary sector and other relevant groups (Turok 2005, Mccarthy 2005). The members of the parties of the urban transformation projects, their qualities, quantities may vary according to the quality of the transformation project, the objectives, spatial scale (approach for districts or the entire city) and may shape according to the purpose of transformation and other conditions ( Turok, 2005). The term "partnership" that emerged according to the agreement reached as the result of political interests in UK draws the conclusion that a closer bond between the public and private sector and direct engagement of the local communities are required (Mccarthy, 2005). Basically four main reasons stand out in response to the question why partnerships are required: first of all a multi-actor partnership is able to cover all aspects of the problem. This will help an efficient and fair distribution of the funding where all sectors are engaged, which makes it the second reason of the partnership approach. And third of all, vertical and horizontal engagement of all actors and organizations results with coordination of activities, funds and efforts planned for the same purpose. The fourth reason is to ensure, contrary to the top-to-bottom centralization approach, the engagement of the local community with a more extensive role, since it is the most affected party from the transformation.

Perspectives

The Coordination of Actors in Urban Regeneration Projects: Fikirtepe, Istanbul, Turkey * Ph.D. candidate TUBA SARI HAKSEVER1, Dr. CANDAN ÇINAR ÇITAK2 1 & 2 Yildiz Technical University, İstanbul, Turkey 1E mail: tuubasari@gmail.com and 2E mail: candancinar@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T It is necessary for urban regeneration projects to be carried out successfully in coordination with other actors. During the process of realising regeneration, many actors and stategically-given decision plays a crucial role. The ways how actors/factors are involved in the process, the relationships founded among them and investigating the methods followed during the process constitute the content of this study. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach with regard to the coordination establised between actors/factors participated during the regeneration process. This study covers the regeneration activities realised in Fikirtepe and its surrounding area, and it aims to solve the relationships among the actors during the time of planning and applications by using semi-structured technique, one of the qualitative research methods, and detailed interviews. Thanks to the data gained from the detailed interviews effectiveness of the actors has been determined. By the help of the findings obtained from Fikirtepe region, the relationships and coordination among the actors has been revealed and a new approach has been created (and suggested) concerning the effectiveness and coordination. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4708 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The concept of urban transformation have emerged with the interventions made to regenerate the areas that had collapsed both in social and economic terms. These interventions were generally in the form of implementation of projects that will contribute to the economic development of the city in housing zones, old vacant ports and industrial zones where the population decline was observed or where low income groups live under poor economical and physical conditions (Ataöv and Osmay, 2007). In our country, the issue of urban transformation has become one of the most discussed and disputed topic with the problems of urbanization and settlement that became more visible specifically following the catastrophes in 1999 Marmara and Düzce earthquakes. (Kalağan and Çiftçi, 2012). When we take a look at the path of transformation in Turkey and legislative regulations made in parallel with this we see that urban transformation is defined as 'regeneration' but with the applications seen in time, the concept varied within itself and gained new dimensions. In order to have successful outcomes in urban transformation projects, it is necessary to carry out the transformation in a coordinated manner with all stakeholders. Multiple actors from local government to centralized management, and strategic decisions have a role in the transformation process. The approaches that these actors bring in throughout the urban transformation process, their relations and partnerships are the topics explored in this study. To analyze the relations of the actors in planning and implementation processes of the urban transformation projects carried out in the study area, Fikirtepe neighborhood and its vicinity, in-depth interviews were made using one of the qualitative research methods, the semi-structured interview technique. Multi-actor structure of the transformation projects in and around Fikirtepe makes it possible to determine urban transformation actors and the way actors are included in the process and to map the relations of these actors. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Definition and Sacope of Urban Transformation Urban transformation is defined as comprehensive vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in economic, physical, social and environmental conditions of an area that has been subject to change (Roberts/Sykes 2000). Urban area that undergoes a change may be a historical settlement, an industrial zone that lost its function or a housing zone with a lot of social and location related problems. The process that involves interventions made to economically, socially and physically resolve the problems of the region is generally referred to as "urban transformation". An urban transformation project should be based on detailed analysis of urban area's condition and effort should be made to reach an agreement with best possible engagement and cooperation of all related stakeholders in regeneration of the area (Roberts / Sykes 2000). In its UK experience, Turok (2005) associates urban transformation concept with three basic attributes. 1. It's objective is to change the nature of an area (space) and to involve the residents of the area and the other actors who have a say in the future of that area. 2. It covers various objectives and activities that intersects with basic functional responsibilities of the state depending on specific problems and potential of the area. 3. Special corporate structure of this partnership may change however it includes a structure that generally works among different stakeholders. Urban transformation practices now have a multi-actor structure different than the previous years. It is a multi-dimensional action process where a wide range of actors act together, rather than the applications involving only the public or private sector. The tree basic elements referred above can be listed as engagement, roles and responsibilities of the public and partnerships. 2.2. Actors, Associations And Engagements In The Urban Transformation Main actors involved in the urban transformation process are the public sector (centralized and local government), private sector, local residents, voluntary sector and other relevant groups (Turok 2005, Mccarthy 2005). The members of the parties of the urban transformation projects, their qualities, quantities may vary according to the quality of the transformation project, the objectives, spatial scale (approach for districts or the entire city) and may shape according to the purpose of transformation and other conditions ( Turok, 2005). The term "partnership" that emerged according to the agreement reached as the result of political interests in UK draws the conclusion that a closer bond between the public and private sector and direct engagement of the local communities are required (Mccarthy, 2005). Basically four main reasons stand out in response to the question why partnerships are required: first of all a multi-actor partnership is able to cover all aspects of the problem. This will help an efficient and fair distribution of the funding where all sectors are engaged, which makes it the second reason of the partnership approach. And third of all, vertical and horizontal engagement of all actors and organizations results with coordination of activities, funds and efforts planned for the same purpose. The fourth reason is to ensure, contrary to the top-to-bottom centralization approach, the engagement of the local community with a more extensive role, since it is the most affected party from the transformation.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: The Coordination Of Actors In Urban Regeneration Projects: Fikirtepe, Istanbul, Turkey, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4708.
You can read the full text:

Read

Contributors

The following have contributed to this page