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A B S T R A C T A lot of cities nowadays are changing a lot due to the influence of globalisation. The most significant impact of globalization is in cities, because of the cities are becoming the rulers of the countries. Urban developments pending in this process are with different dimensions. However, here is the globalization process and to the understanding of the continuing city administration, to the effects of urban space and urban life. In sum, the effects of globalization on cities and the concept of world city are forming. In the context of the problem of globalization, the globalization of economic, cultural, social, spatial and environmental values and effects on management understanding. İt was established that globalisation also includes the increased movement of people, products, ideas, images, lifestyles, policies and capital and that it affects cities through local and global dynamics which in turn causes macro-urban and micro-urban changes. Conclusions were made that globalisation tends to effects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns which in turn affect cities but does not result in the same spatial patterns.

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The Impact of Globalization on Cities *PhD candidate. Beyhan Kara Faculty of Architecture, Girne American University, North Cyprus E mail: beyhankaraarch@gmail.com A B S T R A C T A lot of cities nowadays are changing a lot due to the influence of globalisation. The most significant impact of globalization is in cities, because of the cities are becoming the rulers of the countries. Urban developments pending in this process are with different dimensions. However, here is the globalization process and to the understanding of the continuing city administration, to the effects of urban space and urban life. In sum, the effects of globalization on cities and the concept of world city are forming. In the context of the problem of globalization, the globalization of economic, cultural, social, spatial and environmental values and effects on management understanding. İt was established that globalisation also includes the increased movement of people, products, ideas, images, lifestyles, policies and capital and that it affects cities through local and global dynamics which in turn causes macro-urban and micro-urban changes. Conclusions were made that globalisation tends to effects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns which in turn affect cities but does not result in the same spatial patterns. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 108-113. Doi:10.25034/ijcua.2018.4707 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. Introduction Globalisation is one of the most dominating topics around the world and covers a lot of aspects which range from economics, politics, religion to social elements. The extent to which globalisation has been influencing economic and social elements has been so significant that researchers like (Brenner, 1999; Healey, 1997), now consider it a global phenomenon just like its name implies. Globalisation, on the other hand, consists of a lot of aspects and elements and some of them tend to interfere and contrast with each other and hence its meaning is always subject to a lot of different definitions. Globalisation will be defined as the continued increase in the movement of commodities, capital, images, identities and people through a global space (Jessop, 1998). A study by Amin and Thrift (1994), consider that globalisation is not limited to the movement of physical things such as products and people but can also extend to include intangible things such as ideas. Hence, we can redefine globalisation as the increased movement of lifestyles, policies, principles, ideologies, commodities and people through a global space. From this definition, we can thus note that globalisation has to a greater extent being influencing a lot of aspects and most of them being social aspects such as lifestyles, culture, and images. İt is also important to note that the increase in globalisation has been caused by two important things and these are technological and media developments. A lot of new and innovative technology is now being introduced almost on an annual basis and this affects the way people communicate or shares ideas (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007). İn addition, the growth and developments of social media channels now play an important role in people’s lives as it now causing huge changes in people’s tastes and preferences. İrrespective of the causes of globalisation, there are a lot of ideas which consider globalisation to pose huge effects on the society. For instance, an idea was given by Ritzer (2004), also showed that globalisation has huge effects on social aspects, values, norms and beliefs as well as activities and processes that characterise of help to identify people. With regards to this aspect, it can thus be noted that globalisation tends to affect the way people stay. This can be supported by ideas obtained from a study by Jessop and Sum (2000), which highlighted that there is now a huge shift in the way people are staying especially those in the cities as a result of globalisation. This idea shows that there is a strong connection between globalisation patterns and cities whether in terms of structure, style, designs or development. This is because changes in lifestyles, culture, tastes and preferences as a result of globalisation tend to affect the way cities are designed and developed. This can simply be expressed the way and extent to which cities are being urbanised. Meanwhile,efforts to study the impact of globalisation will not be complete unless effort is devoted to studying how it affects cities. This is also because of ideas which have been given which showed that globalisation does not only affect economic elements but also causes a change in culture, lifestyle, opinions, beliefs, ideas, tastes and preferences (Johnston et al., 2003).Hence, we can expect that people’s perception towards modern western architectural building designs to change as well as their desire to stay in the cities. More so, it was noted that there is a change in the way cities are being managed as a result of an influx of new ideas through globalisation. With all these ideas in mind, it, therefore, shows that there is a greater need to examine the effects of globalisation on cities. This paper, therefore, seeks to examine the effects of globalisation on cities. The Concept of Globalisation and Urban Geography As noted from the above explanations, globalisation has a strong influence on urban geography and effort was once placed by the Urban Regional Research Centre Utrecht to examine the effects and scope of globalisation (Jessop & Sum, 2000). The findings showed that ideas about globalisation have been limited in terms of scope and that both its effects and scope are diverse and affect a lot of things such as urban development. This was further supported by ideas established in a study by of Tuna Taçan-Kok which highlighted that the effects of globalisation are not homogenised and have a lot of effects on spatial patterns on the periphery of both developed and developing economies (Healey, 1997). This,however, led to two important questions being raised, that is, • What is globalisation? • How does globalisation affect local specialities such as cities? From these two questions, additional information and ideas were obtained which showed that globalisation itself is always changing and that it poses effects on economic activities in cities. Hence, it can be questioned from these ideas; • Whether globalisation affects spatial, economic and social patterns? • İf all the places that are experiencing globalisation have the same spatial, economic and social patterns? • To what extent can we regard spatial changes in cities as globalisation? • Whether certain urbanchanges can be linked to globalisation or not and if so how? Observations were made that all globalising cities are increasingly becoming similar (Hubbard & Hall, 1998). Whether the new city features are more important than the old age city features or not, it all depends on how people are viewing the newly globalised cities. Some of these aspects were narrowly covered and outlined in the Journal of Housing and the Built Environment in which it is highlighted that there is a relationship that exists between urban systems, local development and globalisation (Bryson, et al., Eds.). As a result, globalisation was presumed as causing positive changes in urban systems and local development. However, the extent to which globalisation affects local urban systems and local development tend to differ with the way and manner to which global and local aspects of globalisation are being handled or Figure 1. Conceptual aspects of globalisation, urban change and property market dynamics approached.

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The Impact of Globalization on Cities *PhD candidate. Beyhan Kara Faculty of Architecture, Girne American University, North Cyprus E mail: beyhankaraarch@gmail.com A B S T R A C T A lot of cities nowadays are changing a lot due to the influence of globalisation. The most significant impact of globalization is in cities, because of the cities are becoming the rulers of the countries. Urban developments pending in this process are with different dimensions. However, here is the globalization process and to the understanding of the continuing city administration, to the effects of urban space and urban life. In sum, the effects of globalization on cities and the concept of world city are forming. In the context of the problem of globalization, the globalization of economic, cultural, social, spatial and environmental values and effects on management understanding. İt was established that globalisation also includes the increased movement of people, products, ideas, images, lifestyles, policies and capital and that it affects cities through local and global dynamics which in turn causes macro-urban and micro-urban changes. Conclusions were made that globalisation tends to effects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns which in turn affect cities but does not result in the same spatial patterns. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 108-113. Doi:10.25034/ijcua.2018.4707 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. Introduction Globalisation is one of the most dominating topics around the world and covers a lot of aspects which range from economics, politics, religion to social elements. The extent to which globalisation has been influencing economic and social elements has been so significant that researchers like (Brenner, 1999; Healey, 1997), now consider it a global phenomenon just like its name implies. Globalisation, on the other hand, consists of a lot of aspects and elements and some of them tend to interfere and contrast with each other and hence its meaning is always subject to a lot of different definitions. Globalisation will be defined as the continued increase in the movement of commodities, capital, images, identities and people through a global space (Jessop, 1998). A study by Amin and Thrift (1994), consider that globalisation is not limited to the movement of physical things such as products and people but can also extend to include intangible things such as ideas. Hence, we can redefine globalisation as the increased movement of lifestyles, policies, principles, ideologies, commodities and people through a global space. From this definition, we can thus note that globalisation has to a greater extent being influencing a lot of aspects and most of them being social aspects such as lifestyles, culture, and images. İt is also important to note that the increase in globalisation has been caused by two important things and these are technological and media developments. A lot of new and innovative technology is now being introduced almost on an annual basis and this affects the way people communicate or shares ideas (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007). İn addition, the growth and developments of social media channels now play an important role in people’s lives as it now causing huge changes in people’s tastes and preferences. İrrespective of the causes of globalisation, there are a lot of ideas which consider globalisation to pose huge effects on the society. For instance, an idea was given by Ritzer (2004), also showed that globalisation has huge effects on social aspects, values, norms and beliefs as well as activities and processes that characterise of help to identify people. With regards to this aspect, it can thus be noted that globalisation tends to affect the way people stay. This can be supported by ideas obtained from a study by Jessop and Sum (2000), which highlighted that there is now a huge shift in the way people are staying especially those in the cities as a result of globalisation. This idea shows that there is a strong connection between globalisation patterns and cities whether in terms of structure, style, designs or development. This is because changes in lifestyles, culture, tastes and preferences as a result of globalisation tend to affect the way cities are designed and developed. This can simply be expressed the way and extent to which cities are being urbanised. Meanwhile,efforts to study the impact of globalisation will not be complete unless effort is devoted to studying how it affects cities. This is also because of ideas which have been given which showed that globalisation does not only affect economic elements but also causes a change in culture, lifestyle, opinions, beliefs, ideas, tastes and preferences (Johnston et al., 2003).Hence, we can expect that people’s perception towards modern western architectural building designs to change as well as their desire to stay in the cities. More so, it was noted that there is a change in the way cities are being managed as a result of an influx of new ideas through globalisation. With all these ideas in mind, it, therefore, shows that there is a greater need to examine the effects of globalisation on cities. This paper, therefore, seeks to examine the effects of globalisation on cities. The Concept of Globalisation and Urban Geography As noted from the above explanations, globalisation has a strong influence on urban geography and effort was once placed by the Urban Regional Research Centre Utrecht to examine the effects and scope of globalisation (Jessop & Sum, 2000). The findings showed that ideas about globalisation have been limited in terms of scope and that both its effects and scope are diverse and affect a lot of things such as urban development. This was further supported by ideas established in a study by of Tuna Taçan-Kok which highlighted that the effects of globalisation are not homogenised and have a lot of effects on spatial patterns on the periphery of both developed and developing economies (Healey, 1997). This,however, led to two important questions being raised, that is, • What is globalisation? • How does globalisation affect local specialities such as cities? From these two questions, additional information and ideas were obtained which showed that globalisation itself is always changing and that it poses effects on economic activities in cities. Hence, it can be questioned from these ideas; • Whether globalisation affects spatial, economic and social patterns? • İf all the places that are experiencing globalisation have the same spatial, economic and social patterns? • To what extent can we regard spatial changes in cities as globalisation? • Whether certain urbanchanges can be linked to globalisation or not and if so how? Observations were made that all globalising cities are increasingly becoming similar (Hubbard & Hall, 1998). Whether the new city features are more important than the old age city features or not, it all depends on how people are viewing the newly globalised cities. Some of these aspects were narrowly covered and outlined in the Journal of Housing and the Built Environment in which it is highlighted that there is a relationship that exists between urban systems, local development and globalisation (Bryson, et al., Eds.). As a result, globalisation was presumed as causing positive changes in urban systems and local development. However, the extent to which globalisation affects local urban systems and local development tend to differ with the way and manner to which global and local aspects of globalisation are being handled or Figure 1. Conceptual aspects of globalisation, urban change and property market dynamics approached.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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