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A B S T R A C T For a long time, Social life in Bahrain was unique and positive. Public Participation and social cooperative with no reference of segregation or discrimination for long time. Regularly residences were gathering together to discuss the daily life, solving problems, discussing their economic and social issues with spirit of respecting human rights and civilization. In Bahrain, there were many elements, which were positively in city quality of life. For example, “Al-Farej” which is common name for space in old time in Bahrain, played the role of two main issues. The research problem is that, unfortunately, most of the old part of Manama city, Capital of Bahrain, area suffer from losing the identity by modernization in many forms by urban developing. Consequently, day by day, the social life became different and lost most of noble characteristics of traditional habitual Social life. Bahraini heritage alive in the old area of Manama City, the area needs a node and a reference point for the community to gather in a better-built environment. Therefore, there is essential need for proposing solution to revive the brilliant of social life in Kingdom of Bahrain in term of gathering people for cultural events with economic return to keep the rich history and importance of the area and enhance the environment of the center of Manama. The aim of the research is to propose solution to solve the missing of social life in old part of Bahrain by giving guidelines in representing “Al-Farej” in modern way matching with the modernization of life in Manama.

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Towards Reviving the Missing Noble Characteristics of Traditional Habitual Social Life: “Al-Farej “In Kingdom of Bahrain *1Dr.Islam H. El-Ghonaimy, 2MA.Mariam Haider Al-Haddad 1& 2 Department Of Architecture and interior design, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Bahrain E mail:eelghonaimy@uob.edu.bh E mail: mariam.alhadad@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T For a long time, Social life in Bahrain was unique and positive. Public Participation and social cooperative with no reference of segregation or discrimination for long time. Regularly residences were gathering together to discuss the daily life, solving problems, discussing their economic and social issues with spirit of respecting human rights and civilization. In Bahrain, there were many elements, which were positively in city quality of life. For example, “Al-Farej” which is common name for space in old time in Bahrain, played the role of two main issues. The research problem is that, unfortunately, most of the old part of Manama city, Capital of Bahrain, area suffer from losing the identity by modernization in many forms by urban developing. Consequently, day by day, the social life became different and lost most of noble characteristics of traditional habitual Social life. Bahraini heritage alive in the old area of Manama City, the area needs a node and a reference point for the community to gather in a better-built environment. Therefore, there is essential need for proposing solution to revive the brilliant of social life in Kingdom of Bahrain in term of gathering people for cultural events with economic return to keep the rich history and importance of the area and enhance the environment of the center of Manama. The aim of the research is to propose solution to solve the missing of social life in old part of Bahrain by giving guidelines in representing “Al-Farej” in modern way matching with the modernization of life in Manama. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 35-46. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4699 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The discreteness and positive credence of the social life in Bahrain had stood the test of time by virtue of public participation and social cooperation void of ethnical or racial discrimination. Since the birth of their community, the residents took to non-stereotypical assembling to settle upon their daily routine regulations, the daily life, sort out the encountered challenges, stipulating their individualistic socioeconomic codes owing to their inherited civilization. The difference lied in their cradle of eminence, for their variant yet solidary composition nourished their life quality. For example, “Al-Farej” played the role of two aspects of premier importance; firstly the city acted as a prominent cultural center, which is an organization, building or complex that promotes culture and arts in Manama. It was common within Manama neighborhoods, to supply the community with arts and other related faculties. While the second was community gatherings centers, where the community members get in touch to perform some group activities, grant social support, gain public information, and secure other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Commonly “Al-Farej” had been organized by residencies within private, government-sponsored bodies, or activist-run. From the researchers’ perspective, “Al-Farej” was the node of the ancient part of Manama city. 1.1. Research Importance The research casts the light on the social and historical roots of Manama in general and Farej Al-Fadhel in specific for they once had the upper hand; thanks to their wealth and worth. Lamentably, these have been no more but decayed ruins after the negligence of the old social pattern and the traditional vernacular architecture of the deceased Bahraini style. In brief, the research comes up with a solution that will revive the Genius loci of the area by an architectural product, serving as a cultural community center at the heart of Manama, to revive the former domineering center of social and cultural values of the Bahraini communities. 1.2. Research problem The disintegration of the urban fabric and architecture structure in the study area negatively affected the social traits, life quality and cultural values of the residents. Unfortunately, most of the old part of Manama area suffer identity loss by the rampant wave of modernization in many aspects of the action of its urban development. Consequently, each day passes by ripping off the remains of their distinguishing legacy, to mourn the loss of their bygone noble and traditional traits of their regular social life. Consequently, the research will explore problems in depth and find why applying modernism are commonly negative upon the study area. 1.3. Research Goals Searching about a node “reference point” for the community which should be a building with social, culture, historical, economic, urban,…etc values. Moreover, introduce guidelines to enhance social residence life in the study area. 1.4. Research Achievement: “Al-Farej” at the heart of Manama gathers people for cultural events for financial profits is the key to enhance and revive the cultural and social of the center of Manama. 1.5. Pilot study Studying the history of Manama in general while concentrating on Al Fadhel District (block 305), while Manama is the minor context, this research will review and analyze the urban, social, economic, architectural developments throughout its timeline past to present chronological sequence. 1.6. Research Methodology i. Theoretical Phase: Data collection about old district from different resources about Manama throughout assembling old photos. Interviewing residence even elderly or recently residents in Al-Fadhel district or its novice immigrants for information retrieval from Al-Farej residents. ii. Analytical Phase: gathered data and generating a timeline comprising the most important information iii. Findings: After analyzing all data that were collected, design guidelines will be generated. 2. Manama city, Capital of Kingdom of Bahrain 2.1. Location The kingdom of Bahrain is in the Gulf between Saudi Arabia and Qatar and is made up of 36 islands. The capital city of Manama serves as the hub of most of the population and economic activities. (Susan Wolfinbarger, 2014). Before the development of the planning schemes and housing projects from the government, the island's inhabitants were dispersed in approximately fifty small settlements, which primarily included villages and hamlets. These villages were mostly located near the coast and in the interior part of the island near the springs. The settlements were based on the sources of natural springs and the presence of date palms. (Al-Nabi, The history of land use and development in Bahrain, 2012)

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Towards Reviving the Missing Noble Characteristics of Traditional Habitual Social Life: “Al-Farej “In Kingdom of Bahrain *1Dr.Islam H. El-Ghonaimy, 2MA.Mariam Haider Al-Haddad 1& 2 Department Of Architecture and interior design, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Bahrain E mail:eelghonaimy@uob.edu.bh E mail: mariam.alhadad@hotmail.com A B S T R A C T For a long time, Social life in Bahrain was unique and positive. Public Participation and social cooperative with no reference of segregation or discrimination for long time. Regularly residences were gathering together to discuss the daily life, solving problems, discussing their economic and social issues with spirit of respecting human rights and civilization. In Bahrain, there were many elements, which were positively in city quality of life. For example, “Al-Farej” which is common name for space in old time in Bahrain, played the role of two main issues. The research problem is that, unfortunately, most of the old part of Manama city, Capital of Bahrain, area suffer from losing the identity by modernization in many forms by urban developing. Consequently, day by day, the social life became different and lost most of noble characteristics of traditional habitual Social life. Bahraini heritage alive in the old area of Manama City, the area needs a node and a reference point for the community to gather in a better-built environment. Therefore, there is essential need for proposing solution to revive the brilliant of social life in Kingdom of Bahrain in term of gathering people for cultural events with economic return to keep the rich history and importance of the area and enhance the environment of the center of Manama. The aim of the research is to propose solution to solve the missing of social life in old part of Bahrain by giving guidelines in representing “Al-Farej” in modern way matching with the modernization of life in Manama. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 35-46. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4699 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The discreteness and positive credence of the social life in Bahrain had stood the test of time by virtue of public participation and social cooperation void of ethnical or racial discrimination. Since the birth of their community, the residents took to non-stereotypical assembling to settle upon their daily routine regulations, the daily life, sort out the encountered challenges, stipulating their individualistic socioeconomic codes owing to their inherited civilization. The difference lied in their cradle of eminence, for their variant yet solidary composition nourished their life quality. For example, “Al-Farej” played the role of two aspects of premier importance; firstly the city acted as a prominent cultural center, which is an organization, building or complex that promotes culture and arts in Manama. It was common within Manama neighborhoods, to supply the community with arts and other related faculties. While the second was community gatherings centers, where the community members get in touch to perform some group activities, grant social support, gain public information, and secure other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Commonly “Al-Farej” had been organized by residencies within private, government-sponsored bodies, or activist-run. From the researchers’ perspective, “Al-Farej” was the node of the ancient part of Manama city. 1.1. Research Importance The research casts the light on the social and historical roots of Manama in general and Farej Al-Fadhel in specific for they once had the upper hand; thanks to their wealth and worth. Lamentably, these have been no more but decayed ruins after the negligence of the old social pattern and the traditional vernacular architecture of the deceased Bahraini style. In brief, the research comes up with a solution that will revive the Genius loci of the area by an architectural product, serving as a cultural community center at the heart of Manama, to revive the former domineering center of social and cultural values of the Bahraini communities. 1.2. Research problem The disintegration of the urban fabric and architecture structure in the study area negatively affected the social traits, life quality and cultural values of the residents. Unfortunately, most of the old part of Manama area suffer identity loss by the rampant wave of modernization in many aspects of the action of its urban development. Consequently, each day passes by ripping off the remains of their distinguishing legacy, to mourn the loss of their bygone noble and traditional traits of their regular social life. Consequently, the research will explore problems in depth and find why applying modernism are commonly negative upon the study area. 1.3. Research Goals Searching about a node “reference point” for the community which should be a building with social, culture, historical, economic, urban,…etc values. Moreover, introduce guidelines to enhance social residence life in the study area. 1.4. Research Achievement: “Al-Farej” at the heart of Manama gathers people for cultural events for financial profits is the key to enhance and revive the cultural and social of the center of Manama. 1.5. Pilot study Studying the history of Manama in general while concentrating on Al Fadhel District (block 305), while Manama is the minor context, this research will review and analyze the urban, social, economic, architectural developments throughout its timeline past to present chronological sequence. 1.6. Research Methodology i. Theoretical Phase: Data collection about old district from different resources about Manama throughout assembling old photos. Interviewing residence even elderly or recently residents in Al-Fadhel district or its novice immigrants for information retrieval from Al-Farej residents. ii. Analytical Phase: gathered data and generating a timeline comprising the most important information iii. Findings: After analyzing all data that were collected, design guidelines will be generated. 2. Manama city, Capital of Kingdom of Bahrain 2.1. Location The kingdom of Bahrain is in the Gulf between Saudi Arabia and Qatar and is made up of 36 islands. The capital city of Manama serves as the hub of most of the population and economic activities. (Susan Wolfinbarger, 2014). Before the development of the planning schemes and housing projects from the government, the island's inhabitants were dispersed in approximately fifty small settlements, which primarily included villages and hamlets. These villages were mostly located near the coast and in the interior part of the island near the springs. The settlements were based on the sources of natural springs and the presence of date palms. (Al-Nabi, The history of land use and development in Bahrain, 2012)

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This page is a summary of: Towards Reviving the Missing Noble Characteristics of Traditional Habitual Social Life: “Al-Farej “In Kingdom of Bahrain, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4699.
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