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A B S T R A C T Image of the ancient cities across the Arab region have been changed. The urbanization progress and their subsequent urban changes are of rapid acceleration, due to the population increase in the named cities; affecting the encompassed old districts in many respects. The mentioned changes are forked into two main branches; controlled and uncontrolled. On one side, the controlled category abide by the urban regulations in terms of the visual representation of the old districts. On the other side, the uncontrolled counterpart breach these regulations and their logical assumptions ending up in many urban problems in general and visual pollution in particular. The objective of this research is to tackle those cases of visual pollution. The research methodology is staked on both of the data collection and theoretical background about old district in Manama City, whereas thorough historic background of the city and analytical studies of the selected data and questionnaire are carried out. Although there were a few open-ended questions, the majority were closed-ended taking the form of yes/no, multiple choice, or rating scales. Questions went through several renditions based on intra- and interdepartmental review before being presented.

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Visual pollution phenomena and sensitivity of residences in heritage city centers Case of: Old district of Manama city, Kingdom of Bahrain * Dr. ISLAM EL-GHONAIMY Department Of Architecture and interior design, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Bahrain E mail: eelghonaimy@uob.edu.bh A B S T R A C T Image of the ancient cities across the Arab region have been changed. The urbanization progress and their subsequent urban changes are of rapid acceleration, due to the population increase in the named cities; affecting the encompassed old districts in many respects. The mentioned changes are forked into two main branches; controlled and uncontrolled. On one side, the controlled category abide by the urban regulations in terms of the visual representation of the old districts. On the other side, the uncontrolled counterpart breach these regulations and their logical assumptions ending up in many urban problems in general and visual pollution in particular. The objective of this research is to tackle those cases of visual pollution. The research methodology is staked on both of the data collection and theoretical background about old district in Manama City, whereas thorough historic background of the city and analytical studies of the selected data and questionnaire are carried out. Although there were a few open-ended questions, the majority were closed-ended taking the form of yes/no, multiple choice, or rating scales. Questions went through several renditions based on intra- and interdepartmental review before being presented. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 175-190. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4694 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Treading along these ancient cities compels any researcher for visual quality analysis purposes. Albeit, touring across their streets is quite sufficient, to observe the devastating alteration within their urban state deforming their urban texture and architectural structure equivocally. It is way facile to track and detect the distinctive architectural set up of the buildings in regard of their affiliation to various decades. In addition, it is easy to the development of these cities and the lifestyle of its residents by examining the adjustments of their building volumes, forms, color, height, and design. (Elghonaimy, Environmental Assessment of Urban Area, 2000). In Bahrain, old district of Manama city is a witness on the economic, political and social eventuated over the last decade for Manama has been always the heart of civilization and vitality in Bahrain for a long time interval. It is acknowledged that the municipal architecture mirrors the cultural identity, social standard, political conditions and economic status of the homing civilization. Therefore observing the building chronological sequence in Manama indicates the sovereign historical eras of the Bahraini civilization. It is a worth inspecting issue since the local residences of the ancient cities; Manama rely on their accommodating buildings in all their daily urban routine; living, trading, commercial activities, entertainment and social services in terms of education and health, to name a few. Yet architecture is taken for granted as part and parcel of our existence whereas it is not receiving enough attention nor contemplation. Nevertheless, considering architecture as an intrinsic part of our existence, then it ought to be enhanced regarding the visual quality of cities and counted as a window to its hosting cultural identity and its residents’ self-esteem. 1.1. Diagnosis of the problem Many urban problems occur due to malfunctioning treatment of old districts in cities, such as; overpopulated residential areas, infrastructure deficiencies, and indiscriminate distribution of city services deteriorating the life quality right there. The foreign workforce imported utilize the spaces as per their requirement and understanding, thereby altering the prime functions of spaces. Moreover, they are reluctant about the visual display of their place of inhabitance as they do not consider that it belongs to them and they know that their stay is temporary. Visual pollution has been the ultimate repercussion of the haphazard urbanization policy adopted in old district of Manama. 1.2. Significance of studying "Manama city Manama is the former capital of Bahrain, besides. It is considered as a prime tourist attraction and investment zone. It has been the prime location in the past for activities and still holds its position as an important city of Bahrain. The factual image of Manama incarnates the status of Bahrain in general indicate that of Bahrain. Manama is the considered the hub of the social, economic and environmental issues in Bahrain. 1.3. Motivation of selecting “old district of Manama “as case study Old district of Manama city is the core business activities and official buildings of Ministries in Bahrain. Moreover, it is rich in archaeological monuments and heritage architecture entities. Enhancing the visual quality would positively show on residents’ life quality, and attract investors to do business activities and tourists to visit the heritage areas, which by turn improves the national economy of Bahrain. 1.4. Research Idea The unsorted conflict between Bahrain 2030 regarding the enforced regulations and actions amongst local authorities degrades the visual quality in the old district in Manama city. The flow of this conflict should be curbed, to avoid downgrading the visual quality in old district of Manama. 1.5. Aim of the research To find out the reasons of the deterioration of the visual quality in the old district of Manama, and the forms of the resulted visual pollution then how can we enhance it, which consequently will • influence positively life quality of residences • attract capitals of business • Encourage tourists to visit the heritage areas, Consequently, will leads to improve the economy of Bahrain 1.6. The research methodology Research methodology consists of two cardinal sections, where the first compromises the theoretical background figuring out the motif of adjusting the urban texture of Manama followed by a survey interviewing its users, residences, businessmen and municipality officers. The second demonstrates the analytical phase concerning the collected data and the findings of the interview to generate the research guidelines. 2. Visual pollution problem in old cities 2.1. Definitions In general, visual pollution is an aesthetic issue referring to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a visit or view. Visual pollution is defined as the whole of irregular formations, which are mostly found in natural and built environments. (Yilmaz, May 2011). It could be also defined as encountering unfavorable sight that flaunts the aesthetic appeal of a specific area. Visual pollution occurs when an individual cannot enjoy the view in a particular area due to the drastic changes taking place in a named natural environment.

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Visual pollution phenomena and sensitivity of residences in heritage city centers Case of: Old district of Manama city, Kingdom of Bahrain * Dr. ISLAM EL-GHONAIMY Department Of Architecture and interior design, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Bahrain E mail: eelghonaimy@uob.edu.bh A B S T R A C T Image of the ancient cities across the Arab region have been changed. The urbanization progress and their subsequent urban changes are of rapid acceleration, due to the population increase in the named cities; affecting the encompassed old districts in many respects. The mentioned changes are forked into two main branches; controlled and uncontrolled. On one side, the controlled category abide by the urban regulations in terms of the visual representation of the old districts. On the other side, the uncontrolled counterpart breach these regulations and their logical assumptions ending up in many urban problems in general and visual pollution in particular. The objective of this research is to tackle those cases of visual pollution. The research methodology is staked on both of the data collection and theoretical background about old district in Manama City, whereas thorough historic background of the city and analytical studies of the selected data and questionnaire are carried out. Although there were a few open-ended questions, the majority were closed-ended taking the form of yes/no, multiple choice, or rating scales. Questions went through several renditions based on intra- and interdepartmental review before being presented. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 175-190. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4694 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Treading along these ancient cities compels any researcher for visual quality analysis purposes. Albeit, touring across their streets is quite sufficient, to observe the devastating alteration within their urban state deforming their urban texture and architectural structure equivocally. It is way facile to track and detect the distinctive architectural set up of the buildings in regard of their affiliation to various decades. In addition, it is easy to the development of these cities and the lifestyle of its residents by examining the adjustments of their building volumes, forms, color, height, and design. (Elghonaimy, Environmental Assessment of Urban Area, 2000). In Bahrain, old district of Manama city is a witness on the economic, political and social eventuated over the last decade for Manama has been always the heart of civilization and vitality in Bahrain for a long time interval. It is acknowledged that the municipal architecture mirrors the cultural identity, social standard, political conditions and economic status of the homing civilization. Therefore observing the building chronological sequence in Manama indicates the sovereign historical eras of the Bahraini civilization. It is a worth inspecting issue since the local residences of the ancient cities; Manama rely on their accommodating buildings in all their daily urban routine; living, trading, commercial activities, entertainment and social services in terms of education and health, to name a few. Yet architecture is taken for granted as part and parcel of our existence whereas it is not receiving enough attention nor contemplation. Nevertheless, considering architecture as an intrinsic part of our existence, then it ought to be enhanced regarding the visual quality of cities and counted as a window to its hosting cultural identity and its residents’ self-esteem. 1.1. Diagnosis of the problem Many urban problems occur due to malfunctioning treatment of old districts in cities, such as; overpopulated residential areas, infrastructure deficiencies, and indiscriminate distribution of city services deteriorating the life quality right there. The foreign workforce imported utilize the spaces as per their requirement and understanding, thereby altering the prime functions of spaces. Moreover, they are reluctant about the visual display of their place of inhabitance as they do not consider that it belongs to them and they know that their stay is temporary. Visual pollution has been the ultimate repercussion of the haphazard urbanization policy adopted in old district of Manama. 1.2. Significance of studying "Manama city Manama is the former capital of Bahrain, besides. It is considered as a prime tourist attraction and investment zone. It has been the prime location in the past for activities and still holds its position as an important city of Bahrain. The factual image of Manama incarnates the status of Bahrain in general indicate that of Bahrain. Manama is the considered the hub of the social, economic and environmental issues in Bahrain. 1.3. Motivation of selecting “old district of Manama “as case study Old district of Manama city is the core business activities and official buildings of Ministries in Bahrain. Moreover, it is rich in archaeological monuments and heritage architecture entities. Enhancing the visual quality would positively show on residents’ life quality, and attract investors to do business activities and tourists to visit the heritage areas, which by turn improves the national economy of Bahrain. 1.4. Research Idea The unsorted conflict between Bahrain 2030 regarding the enforced regulations and actions amongst local authorities degrades the visual quality in the old district in Manama city. The flow of this conflict should be curbed, to avoid downgrading the visual quality in old district of Manama. 1.5. Aim of the research To find out the reasons of the deterioration of the visual quality in the old district of Manama, and the forms of the resulted visual pollution then how can we enhance it, which consequently will • influence positively life quality of residences • attract capitals of business • Encourage tourists to visit the heritage areas, Consequently, will leads to improve the economy of Bahrain 1.6. The research methodology Research methodology consists of two cardinal sections, where the first compromises the theoretical background figuring out the motif of adjusting the urban texture of Manama followed by a survey interviewing its users, residences, businessmen and municipality officers. The second demonstrates the analytical phase concerning the collected data and the findings of the interview to generate the research guidelines. 2. Visual pollution problem in old cities 2.1. Definitions In general, visual pollution is an aesthetic issue referring to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a visit or view. Visual pollution is defined as the whole of irregular formations, which are mostly found in natural and built environments. (Yilmaz, May 2011). It could be also defined as encountering unfavorable sight that flaunts the aesthetic appeal of a specific area. Visual pollution occurs when an individual cannot enjoy the view in a particular area due to the drastic changes taking place in a named natural environment.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Visual pollution phenomena and sensitivity of residences in heritage city centers Case of: Old district of Manama city, Kingdom of Bahrain, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4694.
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