What is it about?

A B S T R A C T The study evaluates the spatial behaviors of women in urban public place through ‘fear of crime’ and ‘public place functionality’ factors; by using direct observations and questionnaire within the Grand Bazaar as a historical urban public place in the center of Kerman, which is located in the Southwest part of Iran. The study provides a particular perspective to the analysis and understanding of how women make decisions and behave in a spatial setting based on environmental psychology studies. This study applies combinational research methods including qualitative and quantitative approach, including analytical, descriptive, correlation, and logical reasoning methods. This study also conducts direct observation in order to search the strengths and weaknesses of Grand Bazaar as a public place. The results of the study reveal that there is a significant correlation between fear of crime and women’s environmental perception of Grand Bazaar. Furthermore, the research findings indicate that the anxiety of being in less crowded parts of Bazaar is more tangible among women than men. On the other hand, the results show there is a significant correlation between time periods and women’s activities in Grand Bazaar.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran * Ph. D Candidate. AIDA JALALKAMALI1, MA. ELHAM ANJOMSHOA 2 1 Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus 2 Faculty of Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran 1Email: aida.jalalkamali@cc.emu.edu.tr , 2E mail: e_anjomshoa@yahoo.com A B S T R A C T The study evaluates the spatial behaviors of women in urban public place through ‘fear of crime’ and ‘public place functionality’ factors; by using direct observations and questionnaire within the Grand Bazaar as a historical urban public place in the center of Kerman, which is located in the Southwest part of Iran. The study provides a particular perspective to the analysis and understanding of how women make decisions and behave in a spatial setting based on environmental psychology studies. This study applies combinational research methods including qualitative and quantitative approach, including analytical, descriptive, correlation, and logical reasoning methods. This study also conducts direct observation in order to search the strengths and weaknesses of Grand Bazaar as a public place. The results of the study reveal that there is a significant correlation between fear of crime and women’s environmental perception of Grand Bazaar. Furthermore, the research findings indicate that the anxiety of being in less crowded parts of Bazaar is more tangible among women than men. On the other hand, the results show there is a significant correlation between time periods and women’s activities in Grand Bazaar. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 143-153. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4691 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Altman & Zube in (1989) refer to the three critical human dimensions that every public space should provide; “the user’s spatial rights”, “their essential needs” and the meanings they seek. Regarding the equal spatial rights and fulfilling user’s needs, Franck & Paxson (1989) mentioned that with considering the women presence and usages of public spaces, there are visible discriminations on women’s rights and their satisfaction within public spaces. On the other side looking to the spatial behavior patterns of human, it shows that women behaviors in public spaces are affected by very deeply rooted psychological, social, and cultural environmental factors, which are created and nourished by societies. Although, the recent consideration of gender issues in designing new public spaces and places increased, and more women are using them frequently and freely, but still in some cases it seems there is an obvious difference between men and women spatial behavior in public spaces; and it requires more detailed investigation in order to conduct gender-based behaviors. Furthermore, systematic observations, applying questionnaires in case study indicate that there is a significant difference between women and men spatial behavior within the historic urban public place of Grand Bazaar in Kerman province. 2. Public Places and Spatial Behaviors According to (Carr, Francis, Rivlin, & Stone, 1992) public spaces and places offering “an image of accessible urban, suburban, rural, and wilderness landscapes. The term "public" connotes the idea that these settings are accessible to everyone-people of a community, state, or nation, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, physical handicap, or other characteristics.” Public spaces can stay as a common ground, a place where people can build their communities by carrying out their functional and ritual activities. These activities can take place as daily routines or in periodic festivals. Public spaces are also hosting more “private” activities as well; such as selling and buying things, exercising, gardening, or simply finding a place to exist. (Altman & Zube, 1989) The notion of public spaces is based on “daily interactions and activities” between people, and physical structure of public spaces. However, these activities and usages can be restricted by economic, social, cultural, and other constraints. Each one of these factors is defined as “hidden” structures of public spaces; therefore, there is a need to examine and elaborate them as a contextual dimension of behavior. (Golledge & Stimson, 1997). furthermore, each public place should be defined according to first, which type of behavior is associated with or it may happen on that place, second how the physical parameters of that place are organized, and third “the descriptions, or conception which people hold of that behavior in that physical environment.” (Canter, 1977) In this vain Dovey (1985) also specified that space holds ideas of “the interaction between people and a physical setting together with a set of meanings that both emerge from and inform this experience and interaction. (p. 94)” Public place by definition is part of “public realm”; and public realm itself is considered as a set of behavior settings (Lang, 1987). According to behavior settings, public places consisting of a recurring (or standing) behavior pattern, a milieu (pattern of built form) and a time period. This “milieu” has the affordances to let the behaviors to occur. Each and every public place have their own patterns of behavior settings, it means that what will happen in each place depends on motivations, predispositions, competencies and knowledge of people involved. Therefore, the same set of build form (environment) may produce different behavioral patterns due to different users, different times of a day, week, or a year; also may some of them be occurring often time on a daily basis or even throughout the day or year, while others may occur only on special occasions (Lang J. , 2007). Generally, in order to examine human – environmental settings, there is a need to consider all applicable variables and their functional relationships. These variables can consist of the physical and the built aspects of the environment, culture, social, and political systems of societies; also the other variable which is affecting spatial behavior is, “environmental psychology”, this factor intervening and affecting the process, a human perceives the environment and acts within it. However, these variables and process of their effectiveness are varied in each case due to different types of users in place. Therefore, it is necessary to narrow down the type of users and the context that these interactions take place. The study concern to focus on what are the hidden parameters that are defining and coding women’s certain behavioral settings in public spaces, in an Islamic historical context. In this manner, Franck & Paxson (1989) refer to the importance of understanding the context within which women do (or do not) use public spaces. Many of these contexts, do restrict women activities and do confine potentially positive aspects of their experiences. Women can use and enjoy public spaces alone without being accompanied by men, only if they overcome different obstacles and following specific restrictions. Men also may have some limitations, but this situation is different for women as it is more concern about fear of crime, in particular places and times. Still, women don’t have the same “freedom of street” as men have significantly. In order to increase that freedom, it is required to understand and specify the ways in which women are restricted and the reasons behind them. For the most parts of the world, girls (then women) have been raised in a different manner, they have been expected to act differently, to have different responsibilities, and hold different attitudes than boys and (then men) in their societies.

Perspectives

Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran * Ph. D Candidate. AIDA JALALKAMALI1, MA. ELHAM ANJOMSHOA 2 1 Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus 2 Faculty of Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran 1Email: aida.jalalkamali@cc.emu.edu.tr , 2E mail: e_anjomshoa@yahoo.com A B S T R A C T The study evaluates the spatial behaviors of women in urban public place through ‘fear of crime’ and ‘public place functionality’ factors; by using direct observations and questionnaire within the Grand Bazaar as a historical urban public place in the center of Kerman, which is located in the Southwest part of Iran. The study provides a particular perspective to the analysis and understanding of how women make decisions and behave in a spatial setting based on environmental psychology studies. This study applies combinational research methods including qualitative and quantitative approach, including analytical, descriptive, correlation, and logical reasoning methods. This study also conducts direct observation in order to search the strengths and weaknesses of Grand Bazaar as a public place. The results of the study reveal that there is a significant correlation between fear of crime and women’s environmental perception of Grand Bazaar. Furthermore, the research findings indicate that the anxiety of being in less crowded parts of Bazaar is more tangible among women than men. On the other hand, the results show there is a significant correlation between time periods and women’s activities in Grand Bazaar. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 143-153. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4691 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Altman & Zube in (1989) refer to the three critical human dimensions that every public space should provide; “the user’s spatial rights”, “their essential needs” and the meanings they seek. Regarding the equal spatial rights and fulfilling user’s needs, Franck & Paxson (1989) mentioned that with considering the women presence and usages of public spaces, there are visible discriminations on women’s rights and their satisfaction within public spaces. On the other side looking to the spatial behavior patterns of human, it shows that women behaviors in public spaces are affected by very deeply rooted psychological, social, and cultural environmental factors, which are created and nourished by societies. Although, the recent consideration of gender issues in designing new public spaces and places increased, and more women are using them frequently and freely, but still in some cases it seems there is an obvious difference between men and women spatial behavior in public spaces; and it requires more detailed investigation in order to conduct gender-based behaviors. Furthermore, systematic observations, applying questionnaires in case study indicate that there is a significant difference between women and men spatial behavior within the historic urban public place of Grand Bazaar in Kerman province. 2. Public Places and Spatial Behaviors According to (Carr, Francis, Rivlin, & Stone, 1992) public spaces and places offering “an image of accessible urban, suburban, rural, and wilderness landscapes. The term "public" connotes the idea that these settings are accessible to everyone-people of a community, state, or nation, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, physical handicap, or other characteristics.” Public spaces can stay as a common ground, a place where people can build their communities by carrying out their functional and ritual activities. These activities can take place as daily routines or in periodic festivals. Public spaces are also hosting more “private” activities as well; such as selling and buying things, exercising, gardening, or simply finding a place to exist. (Altman & Zube, 1989) The notion of public spaces is based on “daily interactions and activities” between people, and physical structure of public spaces. However, these activities and usages can be restricted by economic, social, cultural, and other constraints. Each one of these factors is defined as “hidden” structures of public spaces; therefore, there is a need to examine and elaborate them as a contextual dimension of behavior. (Golledge & Stimson, 1997). furthermore, each public place should be defined according to first, which type of behavior is associated with or it may happen on that place, second how the physical parameters of that place are organized, and third “the descriptions, or conception which people hold of that behavior in that physical environment.” (Canter, 1977) In this vain Dovey (1985) also specified that space holds ideas of “the interaction between people and a physical setting together with a set of meanings that both emerge from and inform this experience and interaction. (p. 94)” Public place by definition is part of “public realm”; and public realm itself is considered as a set of behavior settings (Lang, 1987). According to behavior settings, public places consisting of a recurring (or standing) behavior pattern, a milieu (pattern of built form) and a time period. This “milieu” has the affordances to let the behaviors to occur. Each and every public place have their own patterns of behavior settings, it means that what will happen in each place depends on motivations, predispositions, competencies and knowledge of people involved. Therefore, the same set of build form (environment) may produce different behavioral patterns due to different users, different times of a day, week, or a year; also may some of them be occurring often time on a daily basis or even throughout the day or year, while others may occur only on special occasions (Lang J. , 2007). Generally, in order to examine human – environmental settings, there is a need to consider all applicable variables and their functional relationships. These variables can consist of the physical and the built aspects of the environment, culture, social, and political systems of societies; also the other variable which is affecting spatial behavior is, “environmental psychology”, this factor intervening and affecting the process, a human perceives the environment and acts within it. However, these variables and process of their effectiveness are varied in each case due to different types of users in place. Therefore, it is necessary to narrow down the type of users and the context that these interactions take place. The study concern to focus on what are the hidden parameters that are defining and coding women’s certain behavioral settings in public spaces, in an Islamic historical context. In this manner, Franck & Paxson (1989) refer to the importance of understanding the context within which women do (or do not) use public spaces. Many of these contexts, do restrict women activities and do confine potentially positive aspects of their experiences. Women can use and enjoy public spaces alone without being accompanied by men, only if they overcome different obstacles and following specific restrictions. Men also may have some limitations, but this situation is different for women as it is more concern about fear of crime, in particular places and times. Still, women don’t have the same “freedom of street” as men have significantly. In order to increase that freedom, it is required to understand and specify the ways in which women are restricted and the reasons behind them. For the most parts of the world, girls (then women) have been raised in a different manner, they have been expected to act differently, to have different responsibilities, and hold different attitudes than boys and (then men) in their societies.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4691.
You can read the full text:

Read

Contributors

The following have contributed to this page