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A B S T R A C T Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor, Boka Bay, Montenegro, is well known for its exceptional beauty, evaluated by UNESCO. The unique universal value has been embodied in the cultural landscape: vernacular architecture harmonized with the cultivated terraced landscape on the slopes of high, rocky mountains. Kostanjica is an old settlement in Boka Bay, former fishermen village, recognized for valuable elements of the cultural landscape: chestnut tree and laurel forest, terraced gardens with arable land, fruit gardens, traditional architecture in stone: clusters of houses, piers and docks, pedestrian pathways, pavements, retaining walls, well integrated in the autochthone Mediterranean vegetation. Since Montenegro has pronounced itself Ecological state in 1991, environmental protection has become the highest priority in all Sustainable Development agendas and policies. Furthermore, preservation of regional peculiarity and fostering distinctive identity of a place, is one of the crucial sustainable development goals. The paper aimed to seek for ways of overcoming profoundly harmful building practices, thus leading to the more efficient and sustainable urban development.

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Cultural Landscape Devastation because of Poor Sustainable Urban Development Practice Case Study: Kostanjica, Boka Bay, Montenegro * PhD CandidateKOSARA KUJUNDZIC 1 and Dr.SLAVICA STAMATOVIC VUCKOVIC 2 1Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia 2 Faculty of Architecture, Podgorica, address: Bulevar Dzordza Vasingtona bb, Podgorica, Montenegro E mail:kosarak@gmail.com E mail: slavicas@t-com.me A B S T R A C T Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor, Boka Bay, Montenegro, is well known for its exceptional beauty, evaluated by UNESCO. The unique universal value has been embodied in the cultural landscape: vernacular architecture harmonized with the cultivated terraced landscape on the slopes of high, rocky mountains. Kostanjica is an old settlement in Boka Bay, former fishermen village, recognized for valuable elements of the cultural landscape: chestnut tree and laurel forest, terraced gardens with arable land, fruit gardens, traditional architecture in stone: clusters of houses, piers and docks, pedestrian pathways, pavements, retaining walls, well integrated in the autochthone Mediterranean vegetation. Since Montenegro has pronounced itself Ecological state in 1991, environmental protection has become the highest priority in all Sustainable Development agendas and policies. Furthermore, preservation of regional peculiarity and fostering distinctive identity of a place, is one of the crucial sustainable development goals. The paper aimed to seek for ways of overcoming profoundly harmful building practices, thus leading to the more efficient and sustainable urban development. . CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4689 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Cultural landscape is defined as a synthesis of natural and anthropogenic factors within a landscape, emerged over time. This includes a well-balanced, symbiotic relation: vegetated landscape has been shaped and cultivated by humans building their settlements, and, at the same time, natural, influential resources of a landscape (topography, vegetation, sources of water) directed the transformation of the artificial environment, providing essential conditions for life. The balance and harmony achieved through this synthesis of man and nature can be preserved only through sustainable development: “In the past, societies were either sustainable or they died out. Because their buildings were so harmoniously enmeshed with their surroundings, culturally authentic and imprinted with values at once spiritual and ecological, they couldn’t but have beauty that speaks to us today” (Day, 2002). Ecological aspect of sustainable development has always been of a crucial importance, since nature has provided life for humans and therefore its protection and preservation has been a necessity, a survival condition sine qua non, especially during the pre-industrial times. Nowadays, unfortunately, we have to be reminded of how important the environment is; hence, how beneficial its preservation and protection is for our life. The Case Study of Kostanjica, a small, former fishermen village in Boka Bay, Montenegro, provides an insight into negative and highly unsustainable tendencies of Investors’ urban planning and profit-driven architecture, devastating for the cultural landscape, a unique and valuable spatial, natural and Culturo-Historical resource. The analysis of this harmful phenomena includes exploration of some influential social, political and cultural factors that have leaded to its occurrence. Furthermore, theoretical and empirical aspects have been involved. Finally, some exemplary architectural principles and models will be addressed in order to approach to a solution to this socio-cultural problem that threatens Boka Bay to be erased from UNESCO’s World Heritage list. This deteriorating spatial phenomena not only deprives the community of a valuable natural and cultural resource, but also jeopardizes the ecosystem and natural cycles, and thus the life in this area, which is the reason why it has to be halted and the consequences minimized. In addition, the sustainable development principles have to be addressed and applied since it is the only way for us to maintain healthy life for ourselves and the future generations. 2. Sustainable development in Montenegro Montenegro is a small Mediterranean country well known for its natural beauties. Situated among Balkan Mountains, in the southern part of the Adriatic Sea, it is a contrasting mosaic of steep mountains, clear blue sea, sandy and rocky beaches, dramatic river canyons, varied lakes, rich and abundant wildlife. Attractive and diversified landscape is one of the most important natural resources of Montenegro. According to Spatial plan (2012), ten landscape types have been distinguished, among which the four of Mediterranean character. These landscape categories have been divided into 21 landscape units, among which is the unique Boka Bay. Landscape is an image of a scenerythat cannot be observed merely on the base of individual elements, but as a spatial- ecological, economic and cultural entirety (Pasinovic, 2008). Cultural landscape, a combination of autochthone, natural elements and various local traditions, has emerged as a result of complex cultural, historical, social and economic conditions and circumstances reflected on the natural background. Perceived as both, natural and cultural heritage, it contains a significant potential and value in terms of the ecological and cultural sustainability. Therefore, its protection and revitalization is a precondition of the sustainable development. Owing to its complex history which included various nations and civilizations supremacy over this area (Ancient Greeks, Romans, Illyrians, Venetian Republic, Russia, France, Austro Hungarian Monarchy), and the authentic, natural landscape beauties, Montenegro includes numerous valuable and unique cultural landscapes. Boka Bay is the only bay on Montenegrin coast, exceptional in the quality and value of both dramatic natural environment and architectural and cultural heritage, described in the notes of the Russian officer Vladimir Bogdanovic Bronevski in 1836: “I haven’t seen more terrifying and yet more beautiful place. Giant, rocky hills in reddish color, piled up irregularly one upon another. Lovcen is the highest mountain showing its peak above clouds. The longitudinal bay looks like a lake lying on the bottom of a dark, deep basin whose shores are interspersed with settlements and fortresses. Wonderful buildings, numerous ships and vegetation of fertile gardens in the narrow valleys decorate this truthfully romantic place creating a splendid contrast to the gloomy appearance of the barren hills in the surrounding” (Grgurevic, 1997). 1. Sustainable development policy and agendas The first recognition of sustainable development principles in Montenegro was in the regional Spatial plan of Southern Adriatic, introduced in 1969, sponsored by United Nations and the SFRY Government.

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Cultural Landscape Devastation because of Poor Sustainable Urban Development Practice Case Study: Kostanjica, Boka Bay, Montenegro * PhD CandidateKOSARA KUJUNDZIC 1 and Dr.SLAVICA STAMATOVIC VUCKOVIC 2 1Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia 2 Faculty of Architecture, Podgorica, address: Bulevar Dzordza Vasingtona bb, Podgorica, Montenegro E mail:kosarak@gmail.com E mail: slavicas@t-com.me A B S T R A C T Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor, Boka Bay, Montenegro, is well known for its exceptional beauty, evaluated by UNESCO. The unique universal value has been embodied in the cultural landscape: vernacular architecture harmonized with the cultivated terraced landscape on the slopes of high, rocky mountains. Kostanjica is an old settlement in Boka Bay, former fishermen village, recognized for valuable elements of the cultural landscape: chestnut tree and laurel forest, terraced gardens with arable land, fruit gardens, traditional architecture in stone: clusters of houses, piers and docks, pedestrian pathways, pavements, retaining walls, well integrated in the autochthone Mediterranean vegetation. Since Montenegro has pronounced itself Ecological state in 1991, environmental protection has become the highest priority in all Sustainable Development agendas and policies. Furthermore, preservation of regional peculiarity and fostering distinctive identity of a place, is one of the crucial sustainable development goals. The paper aimed to seek for ways of overcoming profoundly harmful building practices, thus leading to the more efficient and sustainable urban development. . CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4689 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Cultural landscape is defined as a synthesis of natural and anthropogenic factors within a landscape, emerged over time. This includes a well-balanced, symbiotic relation: vegetated landscape has been shaped and cultivated by humans building their settlements, and, at the same time, natural, influential resources of a landscape (topography, vegetation, sources of water) directed the transformation of the artificial environment, providing essential conditions for life. The balance and harmony achieved through this synthesis of man and nature can be preserved only through sustainable development: “In the past, societies were either sustainable or they died out. Because their buildings were so harmoniously enmeshed with their surroundings, culturally authentic and imprinted with values at once spiritual and ecological, they couldn’t but have beauty that speaks to us today” (Day, 2002). Ecological aspect of sustainable development has always been of a crucial importance, since nature has provided life for humans and therefore its protection and preservation has been a necessity, a survival condition sine qua non, especially during the pre-industrial times. Nowadays, unfortunately, we have to be reminded of how important the environment is; hence, how beneficial its preservation and protection is for our life. The Case Study of Kostanjica, a small, former fishermen village in Boka Bay, Montenegro, provides an insight into negative and highly unsustainable tendencies of Investors’ urban planning and profit-driven architecture, devastating for the cultural landscape, a unique and valuable spatial, natural and Culturo-Historical resource. The analysis of this harmful phenomena includes exploration of some influential social, political and cultural factors that have leaded to its occurrence. Furthermore, theoretical and empirical aspects have been involved. Finally, some exemplary architectural principles and models will be addressed in order to approach to a solution to this socio-cultural problem that threatens Boka Bay to be erased from UNESCO’s World Heritage list. This deteriorating spatial phenomena not only deprives the community of a valuable natural and cultural resource, but also jeopardizes the ecosystem and natural cycles, and thus the life in this area, which is the reason why it has to be halted and the consequences minimized. In addition, the sustainable development principles have to be addressed and applied since it is the only way for us to maintain healthy life for ourselves and the future generations. 2. Sustainable development in Montenegro Montenegro is a small Mediterranean country well known for its natural beauties. Situated among Balkan Mountains, in the southern part of the Adriatic Sea, it is a contrasting mosaic of steep mountains, clear blue sea, sandy and rocky beaches, dramatic river canyons, varied lakes, rich and abundant wildlife. Attractive and diversified landscape is one of the most important natural resources of Montenegro. According to Spatial plan (2012), ten landscape types have been distinguished, among which the four of Mediterranean character. These landscape categories have been divided into 21 landscape units, among which is the unique Boka Bay. Landscape is an image of a scenerythat cannot be observed merely on the base of individual elements, but as a spatial- ecological, economic and cultural entirety (Pasinovic, 2008). Cultural landscape, a combination of autochthone, natural elements and various local traditions, has emerged as a result of complex cultural, historical, social and economic conditions and circumstances reflected on the natural background. Perceived as both, natural and cultural heritage, it contains a significant potential and value in terms of the ecological and cultural sustainability. Therefore, its protection and revitalization is a precondition of the sustainable development. Owing to its complex history which included various nations and civilizations supremacy over this area (Ancient Greeks, Romans, Illyrians, Venetian Republic, Russia, France, Austro Hungarian Monarchy), and the authentic, natural landscape beauties, Montenegro includes numerous valuable and unique cultural landscapes. Boka Bay is the only bay on Montenegrin coast, exceptional in the quality and value of both dramatic natural environment and architectural and cultural heritage, described in the notes of the Russian officer Vladimir Bogdanovic Bronevski in 1836: “I haven’t seen more terrifying and yet more beautiful place. Giant, rocky hills in reddish color, piled up irregularly one upon another. Lovcen is the highest mountain showing its peak above clouds. The longitudinal bay looks like a lake lying on the bottom of a dark, deep basin whose shores are interspersed with settlements and fortresses. Wonderful buildings, numerous ships and vegetation of fertile gardens in the narrow valleys decorate this truthfully romantic place creating a splendid contrast to the gloomy appearance of the barren hills in the surrounding” (Grgurevic, 1997). 1. Sustainable development policy and agendas The first recognition of sustainable development principles in Montenegro was in the regional Spatial plan of Southern Adriatic, introduced in 1969, sponsored by United Nations and the SFRY Government.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: Cultural landscape devastation as a consequence of poor Sustainable Urban Development practice Case study: Kostanjica, Boka Bay, Montenegro, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4689.
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