What is it about?

A B S T R A C T Today, regard for the wellbeing of the group and the earth is on the plan of most nations on the planet, and one of its imperative viewpoints is the contamination of the air and figuring out how to diminish it. Without a doubt, a standout amongst the most vital ranges that assume an unequivocal part in decreasing or expanding this parameter is the city and urban morphology. Tehran, which is viewed as the capital and vital city of Iran, has experienced this issue for a long time, and there are no legitimate arrangement found to decrease its air contamination. Then again, the city has movement from different parts of the nation consistently that makes this issue harsher. The most vital issue in such manner is the city's range, and in addition the city's extension, which decides the thickness of the city. The greater part of this must be joined by the wear and tear of a low standard, which includes a high level of contamination. The failure of the vast majority to purchase houses inside the city has made satellite towns nearby Tehran. Then again, the presence of tremendous local locations around Tehran and the area of workplaces in the downtown area are among alternate issues tended to in this investigation. This examination endeavored to utilize the explanatory expressive technique to think about the part of pressure and morphology of Tehran and its effect on air contamination and give answers for diminishing air contamination and movement.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

The Role Of Urban Density And Morphology In The Air Pollution Of Tehran Metropolitan Ph.D. Candidate ROUHOLLAH OSHRIEH1, *Ph.D. Candidate EHSAN VALIPOUR2 1Islamic Azad University, Tabriz International Branch, Iran 2 Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Architecture and Construction, Italy E mail: Art_boy3000@yahoo.com , 1E mail: eh.valipour@gmail.com A R T I C L E I N F O: Article history: Received 08 April 2018 Accepted 10 May 2018 Available online 05 June 2018 Keywords: Urban density; Air Pollution; Morphology; Tehran Metropolis. A B S T R A C T Today, regard for the wellbeing of the group and the earth is on the plan of most nations on the planet, and one of its imperative viewpoints is the contamination of the air and figuring out how to diminish it. Without a doubt, a standout amongst the most vital ranges that assume an unequivocal part in decreasing or expanding this parameter is the city and urban morphology. Tehran, which is viewed as the capital and vital city of Iran, has experienced this issue for a long time, and there are no legitimate arrangement found to decrease its air contamination. Then again, the city has movement from different parts of the nation consistently that makes this issue harsher. The most vital issue in such manner is the city's range, and in addition the city's extension, which decides the thickness of the city. The greater part of this must be joined by the wear and tear of a low standard, which includes a high level of contamination. The failure of the vast majority to purchase houses inside the city has made satellite towns nearby Tehran. Then again, the presence of tremendous local locations around Tehran and the area of workplaces in the downtown area are among alternate issues tended to in this investigation. This examination endeavored to utilize the explanatory expressive technique to think about the part of pressure and morphology of Tehran and its effect on air contamination and give answers for diminishing air contamination and movement. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4680 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The city is a logical issue since its target and physical measurements in all social, monetary, physical, and spatial fields can be measured by logical criteria. Then again, the city is a spatial-worldly marvel created in a specific point in space and created after some time. Urban areas are considered as an imperative piece of the spatial viewpoints of sustainability and advancement in progress in urban communities, so they can be considered as the most vital stage for economic improvement. Then again, the huge deluge of populaces into substantial urban communities and the quest for meeting fundamental human needs and urban requirements is a standout amongst the most critical worries in the present urbanization. As indicated by UN gauges, in the vicinity of 2000 and 2025, with the multiplying of the quantity of urbanists, their extent is required to increment from 47% to over 61% (Hall and Fifeffer, 2009; 35). With the fast development of the total populace and its focus in urban communities, suburbia of urban areas have been quickening and the urban arranging emergency has turned out to be across the board in many parts of the world; thus, the urban advancement worldview is serious to accomplish maintainability and social and spatial equity. Actually, the possibility of a "minimal city" was a consistent reaction to the worries of urban advancement (Tory, 1996).The growth of the city and the increase of urban density alone, in order to answer the problems, as quantitative coordinates and the qualities are ignored. What has been encountered by today's cities in Iran, including Tehran, is the quantitative growth where the development debate is less visible. In today's urbanization, high-rise buildings can be designed as one of the features of a city's view with a node that has a positive role in increasing the visual characteristics of the city. City view as the most important link of the city with the viewer is the language of a city, which induces the state of the city to the viewer. Urban views establish communication with urban viewers and have the greatest visual impact on the urban observer. Therefore, the city density and the densely populated city cannot be avoided, but there must be a way to apply these parameters correctly to make the city dynamic and least problematic. 2. Methodology In this paper, the comprehensive plan for reduction of air pollution in Tehran and the pathology of its different axes have been investigated and the morphology of this city and urban density have been investigated to discuss and compare the reduction in the air pollution in the metropolis of Tehran. Given the nature of the subject and the objectives of the research, the approach to the research space is descriptive-analytic. Data collection method of initial data is documentary and library using Tehran Metropolitan Statistical Yearbooks and the urban comprehensive plan and the stations for measuring the amount of air pollution. The population of Tehran's 22 districts is surveyed by surveying the city's morphology, topography, population density, and user and vehicle evaluation. In addition, personal and public vehicles and their pollutants are also examined and classified to identify and present the main pollutants and find the appropriate solution. 3. Dense city Despite the many definitions of the sustainable city, some believe that the concept of sustainability of the city is so comprehensive that cannot be converted into scientific dimensions and cannot simply be converted into concrete, short-term and executive actions. Alternatively, it may be possible to determine the stability but not able to measure it (Tabibian, 1999; 52). Nevertheless, in general, the compact city, in terms of form and scale, is a city suitable for walking, cycling and public transport, along with a congestion that encourages social interactions. In practice, this scale equals the density of streets and buildings of three or four floors in the urban areas of most English and European cities (Pourmohammadi and Ghorbani, 2003; 94). Some urban conservation researchers consider the need for less frequent travel by car, public transport support and pedestrians or bicycles associated with reduced fuel consumption as the benefits of a densely populated city. In addition, more and better access to services and facilities, increasing the efficiency of urban services are of the consequence of urban compactness (Burton, 2000; 19). Optimization of energy consumption, reduction of harmful gases by reducing the need for transportation and reducing waste of resources due to the provision of basic services with better efficiency from the state are of other advantages of the compact city (Pourmohammadi, Qorbani, 2003; 94). The urban compact structure shows the complex reality of everyday life in many successful cities, which can be applied to the pattern of radial, longitudinal, and organic cities along the paths of communication. These are the patterns of cities spread against and expansion that has been overwhelming, but Tehran has experienced some kind of controversy in this regard. On the other hand, the urban model is denser in its planning, and on the other hand, there is an increasing trend in the area of the metropolis on the surface and wide increasing urbanization has caused many traffic and pollution. The compact urban development pattern maintains appropriate levels of economic and social activities around urban and local centers, and ensures that all parts of the city - even remote areas and quieter neighborhoods - at a distance have good sources of basic transportation and urban services. It is precisely such a level of development that is felt in most urban areas of today, but due to the lack of proper management of this metropolis, there is neither good public transit nor distance of residential areas are respected for recreation facilities and, in fact, a decent city strategy, due to lack of understanding and implementation, has become a major dilemma for the city. The location or position of creating flexible policies for congestion plays an important role.

Perspectives

The Role Of Urban Density And Morphology In The Air Pollution Of Tehran Metropolitan Ph.D. Candidate ROUHOLLAH OSHRIEH1, *Ph.D. Candidate EHSAN VALIPOUR2 1Islamic Azad University, Tabriz International Branch, Iran 2 Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Architecture and Construction, Italy E mail: Art_boy3000@yahoo.com , 1E mail: eh.valipour@gmail.com A R T I C L E I N F O: Article history: Received 08 April 2018 Accepted 10 May 2018 Available online 05 June 2018 Keywords: Urban density; Air Pollution; Morphology; Tehran Metropolis. A B S T R A C T Today, regard for the wellbeing of the group and the earth is on the plan of most nations on the planet, and one of its imperative viewpoints is the contamination of the air and figuring out how to diminish it. Without a doubt, a standout amongst the most vital ranges that assume an unequivocal part in decreasing or expanding this parameter is the city and urban morphology. Tehran, which is viewed as the capital and vital city of Iran, has experienced this issue for a long time, and there are no legitimate arrangement found to decrease its air contamination. Then again, the city has movement from different parts of the nation consistently that makes this issue harsher. The most vital issue in such manner is the city's range, and in addition the city's extension, which decides the thickness of the city. The greater part of this must be joined by the wear and tear of a low standard, which includes a high level of contamination. The failure of the vast majority to purchase houses inside the city has made satellite towns nearby Tehran. Then again, the presence of tremendous local locations around Tehran and the area of workplaces in the downtown area are among alternate issues tended to in this investigation. This examination endeavored to utilize the explanatory expressive technique to think about the part of pressure and morphology of Tehran and its effect on air contamination and give answers for diminishing air contamination and movement. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4680 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The city is a logical issue since its target and physical measurements in all social, monetary, physical, and spatial fields can be measured by logical criteria. Then again, the city is a spatial-worldly marvel created in a specific point in space and created after some time. Urban areas are considered as an imperative piece of the spatial viewpoints of sustainability and advancement in progress in urban communities, so they can be considered as the most vital stage for economic improvement. Then again, the huge deluge of populaces into substantial urban communities and the quest for meeting fundamental human needs and urban requirements is a standout amongst the most critical worries in the present urbanization. As indicated by UN gauges, in the vicinity of 2000 and 2025, with the multiplying of the quantity of urbanists, their extent is required to increment from 47% to over 61% (Hall and Fifeffer, 2009; 35). With the fast development of the total populace and its focus in urban communities, suburbia of urban areas have been quickening and the urban arranging emergency has turned out to be across the board in many parts of the world; thus, the urban advancement worldview is serious to accomplish maintainability and social and spatial equity. Actually, the possibility of a "minimal city" was a consistent reaction to the worries of urban advancement (Tory, 1996).The growth of the city and the increase of urban density alone, in order to answer the problems, as quantitative coordinates and the qualities are ignored. What has been encountered by today's cities in Iran, including Tehran, is the quantitative growth where the development debate is less visible. In today's urbanization, high-rise buildings can be designed as one of the features of a city's view with a node that has a positive role in increasing the visual characteristics of the city. City view as the most important link of the city with the viewer is the language of a city, which induces the state of the city to the viewer. Urban views establish communication with urban viewers and have the greatest visual impact on the urban observer. Therefore, the city density and the densely populated city cannot be avoided, but there must be a way to apply these parameters correctly to make the city dynamic and least problematic. 2. Methodology In this paper, the comprehensive plan for reduction of air pollution in Tehran and the pathology of its different axes have been investigated and the morphology of this city and urban density have been investigated to discuss and compare the reduction in the air pollution in the metropolis of Tehran. Given the nature of the subject and the objectives of the research, the approach to the research space is descriptive-analytic. Data collection method of initial data is documentary and library using Tehran Metropolitan Statistical Yearbooks and the urban comprehensive plan and the stations for measuring the amount of air pollution. The population of Tehran's 22 districts is surveyed by surveying the city's morphology, topography, population density, and user and vehicle evaluation. In addition, personal and public vehicles and their pollutants are also examined and classified to identify and present the main pollutants and find the appropriate solution. 3. Dense city Despite the many definitions of the sustainable city, some believe that the concept of sustainability of the city is so comprehensive that cannot be converted into scientific dimensions and cannot simply be converted into concrete, short-term and executive actions. Alternatively, it may be possible to determine the stability but not able to measure it (Tabibian, 1999; 52). Nevertheless, in general, the compact city, in terms of form and scale, is a city suitable for walking, cycling and public transport, along with a congestion that encourages social interactions. In practice, this scale equals the density of streets and buildings of three or four floors in the urban areas of most English and European cities (Pourmohammadi and Ghorbani, 2003; 94). Some urban conservation researchers consider the need for less frequent travel by car, public transport support and pedestrians or bicycles associated with reduced fuel consumption as the benefits of a densely populated city. In addition, more and better access to services and facilities, increasing the efficiency of urban services are of the consequence of urban compactness (Burton, 2000; 19). Optimization of energy consumption, reduction of harmful gases by reducing the need for transportation and reducing waste of resources due to the provision of basic services with better efficiency from the state are of other advantages of the compact city (Pourmohammadi, Qorbani, 2003; 94). The urban compact structure shows the complex reality of everyday life in many successful cities, which can be applied to the pattern of radial, longitudinal, and organic cities along the paths of communication. These are the patterns of cities spread against and expansion that has been overwhelming, but Tehran has experienced some kind of controversy in this regard. On the other hand, the urban model is denser in its planning, and on the other hand, there is an increasing trend in the area of the metropolis on the surface and wide increasing urbanization has caused many traffic and pollution. The compact urban development pattern maintains appropriate levels of economic and social activities around urban and local centers, and ensures that all parts of the city - even remote areas and quieter neighborhoods - at a distance have good sources of basic transportation and urban services. It is precisely such a level of development that is felt in most urban areas of today, but due to the lack of proper management of this metropolis, there is neither good public transit nor distance of residential areas are respected for recreation facilities and, in fact, a decent city strategy, due to lack of understanding and implementation, has become a major dilemma for the city. The location or position of creating flexible policies for congestion plays an important role.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: the role of urban density and morphology in the air pollution of Tehran metropolitan, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2018, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.4680.
You can read the full text:

Read

Contributors

The following have contributed to this page