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A B S T R A C T Construction sector of Kurdistan region of Republic of Iraq has witnessed a huge development in construction sector last ten years. However, there are lack of awareness and legislation regarding the sustainable construction in buildings sector. The aim of the paper is to find the required mechanism to introduce sustainable practice and implement sustainable construction in the buildings construction sector at Northern Iraq. The main objectives in this study are identifying the barriers in sustainable construction at Northern Iraq and investigate the law and regulations in dealing with these barriers.

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Opportunities for Practicing Sustainable Building Construction in Kurdistan Region, Iraq *MA.LAWAND WIRYA SHAWKAT 1,Ph.D. CandidateSALAR SALAH MUHY AL-DIN 2,Dr.DUSKO KUZOVIC 3 1Department of Architecture, Near East University, Turkey 2Department of Architecture, Girne American University, Turkey 3Department of Architecture, University of East Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina E mail:lawandw@gmail.com , E mail: salars.muhyaldin@yahoo.com , E mail: dusko.kuzovic@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Construction sector of Kurdistan region of Republic of Iraq has witnessed a huge development in construction sector last ten years. However, there are lack of awareness and legislation regarding the sustainable construction in buildings sector. The aim of the paper is to find the required mechanism to introduce sustainable practice and implement sustainable construction in the buildings construction sector at Northern Iraq. The main objectives in this study are identifying the barriers in sustainable construction at Northern Iraq and investigate the law and regulations in dealing with these barriers. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 96-101. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3665 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved 1. Introduction The necessity to overcome the global warming and climatic changes, which the world facing it in 21st century, requires the action towards sustainability are crucial subject nowadays. Growth population and expanding of urbanization will continue increasing the buildings construction. In the same context, the needs for the safe and good life of future generations are also important. To reach this goal there is vital requirement to control urban planning, design and construction. Thus, sustainability in design and construction became crucial for the storing of natural resources for next generations. United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (UNWCED), defined Sustainability was defined as that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1987), (Al Surf, 2014). Figure 1. Three main aspects of sustainability (from Juneau Commission on Sustainability) Sustainable development and construction of the buildings are directly affecting one another, as Section 7.67 of the United Nations’ Agenda 21 states: “The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement of the national socio-economic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. However, they can be a major source of environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base, degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building materials harmful to human health”(UN -Agenda 21, 2004). Sustainability consists of three main aspects, the interrelation of them creates the sustainability. Sustainable development recognized in three terms, that are environmental protection, economic growth, and social development (Adams, 2006). These aspects should be available in order to achieve sustainability in any field. See figure ‘2’. Generally sustainable buildings supposed to achieve the three main aspects of sustainability: Environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and Social sustainability (McConville, 2006). Table ‘1’, shows the main factors to achieve sustainability in the buildings considering the three aspects of sustainability. Constructions, involves into socio-economic fields and environmental field as well, through making remarkable use of natural resources and increase the generation of greenhouse gasses through buildings (Asif et al.,2005). According to Zainulabidin andPasquire, (2005), the main principles in sustainable building are to implement the safety and comfort to occupants as well as the surrounding environment and society. 2. Documents and Discussion 2.1. Kurdistan Region (Northern Iraq) Of Republic Of Iraq Northern Iraq is a federal part in federal state of Iraq. The region bordered by Turkey from the north, by Iran from the East, by Syria from the west and from the south by the rest of Iraq. The capital of the region is ‘Erbil’. The population of Northern Iraq region is 5.2 million. It consist of Three governorates of Erbil, Slemani (including administration of Garmian), Duhok, and later in 2014 the forth governorate added to the region named Halabja. Those four governorates cover approximately 40,000 square kilometers which is larger than the Netherlands, Bahrain, and four times the area of Lebanon. This include the governorates administered by KRG, but does not contain areas of Kurdistan outside of KRG administration, such as Kirkuk (Soderberg, and Phillips, 2015). Figure 2. Northern Iraq Map Source: (http://www.iran-daily.com/News/155384.html) 2.2. Building Construction In Northern Iraq Region The construction sector is a big part of the Northern Iraq Region’s economy because of its influence on other sectors. The span of the development market is evaluated at $2.8 billion, with 95% of the market controlled by Turkish construction companies.

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Opportunities for Practicing Sustainable Building Construction in Kurdistan Region, Iraq *MA.LAWAND WIRYA SHAWKAT 1,Ph.D. CandidateSALAR SALAH MUHY AL-DIN 2,Dr.DUSKO KUZOVIC 3 1Department of Architecture, Near East University, Turkey 2Department of Architecture, Girne American University, Turkey 3Department of Architecture, University of East Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina E mail:lawandw@gmail.com , E mail: salars.muhyaldin@yahoo.com , E mail: dusko.kuzovic@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Construction sector of Kurdistan region of Republic of Iraq has witnessed a huge development in construction sector last ten years. However, there are lack of awareness and legislation regarding the sustainable construction in buildings sector. The aim of the paper is to find the required mechanism to introduce sustainable practice and implement sustainable construction in the buildings construction sector at Northern Iraq. The main objectives in this study are identifying the barriers in sustainable construction at Northern Iraq and investigate the law and regulations in dealing with these barriers. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 96-101. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3665 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved 1. Introduction The necessity to overcome the global warming and climatic changes, which the world facing it in 21st century, requires the action towards sustainability are crucial subject nowadays. Growth population and expanding of urbanization will continue increasing the buildings construction. In the same context, the needs for the safe and good life of future generations are also important. To reach this goal there is vital requirement to control urban planning, design and construction. Thus, sustainability in design and construction became crucial for the storing of natural resources for next generations. United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (UNWCED), defined Sustainability was defined as that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1987), (Al Surf, 2014). Figure 1. Three main aspects of sustainability (from Juneau Commission on Sustainability) Sustainable development and construction of the buildings are directly affecting one another, as Section 7.67 of the United Nations’ Agenda 21 states: “The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement of the national socio-economic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. However, they can be a major source of environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base, degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building materials harmful to human health”(UN -Agenda 21, 2004). Sustainability consists of three main aspects, the interrelation of them creates the sustainability. Sustainable development recognized in three terms, that are environmental protection, economic growth, and social development (Adams, 2006). These aspects should be available in order to achieve sustainability in any field. See figure ‘2’. Generally sustainable buildings supposed to achieve the three main aspects of sustainability: Environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and Social sustainability (McConville, 2006). Table ‘1’, shows the main factors to achieve sustainability in the buildings considering the three aspects of sustainability. Constructions, involves into socio-economic fields and environmental field as well, through making remarkable use of natural resources and increase the generation of greenhouse gasses through buildings (Asif et al.,2005). According to Zainulabidin andPasquire, (2005), the main principles in sustainable building are to implement the safety and comfort to occupants as well as the surrounding environment and society. 2. Documents and Discussion 2.1. Kurdistan Region (Northern Iraq) Of Republic Of Iraq Northern Iraq is a federal part in federal state of Iraq. The region bordered by Turkey from the north, by Iran from the East, by Syria from the west and from the south by the rest of Iraq. The capital of the region is ‘Erbil’. The population of Northern Iraq region is 5.2 million. It consist of Three governorates of Erbil, Slemani (including administration of Garmian), Duhok, and later in 2014 the forth governorate added to the region named Halabja. Those four governorates cover approximately 40,000 square kilometers which is larger than the Netherlands, Bahrain, and four times the area of Lebanon. This include the governorates administered by KRG, but does not contain areas of Kurdistan outside of KRG administration, such as Kirkuk (Soderberg, and Phillips, 2015). Figure 2. Northern Iraq Map Source: (http://www.iran-daily.com/News/155384.html) 2.2. Building Construction In Northern Iraq Region The construction sector is a big part of the Northern Iraq Region’s economy because of its influence on other sectors. The span of the development market is evaluated at $2.8 billion, with 95% of the market controlled by Turkish construction companies.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: Opportunities for Practicing Sustainable Building Construction in Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, October 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3665.
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