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A B S T R A C T Economy can be considered as the transversal component of the human activities over territories. This fact can be observed from a diachronic perspective: the way how architectural typologies arose through history. But the relations between Economy and Architecture are not only established by the small scales but the larger ones. Cities and territories evolved from compact forms till spread ones in a parallel way to the arousal of the shopping areas. Urban sprawl could never be understood without these new typologies. The paper is based on the key note speech was held in the International seminar “Economy today” last September 2017 in Andrićgrad (Bosnia and Herzegovina). It is divided in two blocks: the first one relates to a general review of the historical reflections of this relation with a special mention to the consequences of an economic crisis either in the landscape or urban scales. The second part, partially included in the conclusions, reflects on the necessary changes in the university curriculums for a better visualization of this relation. It would imply new attitudes able to explain most of the architectural processes as the formal result of a larger interaction.

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Some Notes about Architecture, Urbanism and Economy *Dr.JOSE MANUEL PAGES MADRIGAL University of Genova, Italy E mail: jmpmadrigal@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Economy can be considered as the transversal component of the human activities over territories. This fact can be observed from a diachronic perspective: the way how architectural typologies arose through history. But the relations between Economy and Architecture are not only established by the small scales but the larger ones. Cities and territories evolved from compact forms till spread ones in a parallel way to the arousal of the shopping areas. Urban sprawl could never be understood without these new typologies. The paper is based on the key note speech was held in the International seminar “Economy today” last September 2017 in Andrićgrad (Bosnia and Herzegovina). It is divided in two blocks: the first one relates to a general review of the historical reflections of this relation with a special mention to the consequences of an economic crisis either in the landscape or urban scales. The second part, partially included in the conclusions, reflects on the necessary changes in the university curriculums for a better visualization of this relation. It would imply new attitudes able to explain most of the architectural processes as the formal result of a larger interaction. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3663 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Architecture and urban planning as human activities, are necessarily linked to Economy. The economical component is present in their respective design processes, since they need funds to be developed. There are not urban forms without relations with economy, but at the same time it is difficult to understand the economy without an urban basis supporting it. Urban societies were the perfect location for sharing the first trading experiences. That is the reason why cities reflected this relation since the first ages. There are a lot of examples through History: Agoras (Figure 1), Forums, Souks and Medieval markets (Figure 2) are good paradigms of these relations. Their respective different cultures are beyond these simple urban forms. Galleries and arcades during the 19th were in fact the precedents of the 20th mall centers, meanwhile the Central market typologies arose in the main cities of the planet. All these typologies provoked different reactions and they were engines of new territorial or urban developments. Shopping centers proliferated during the second half of the 20th century. They can be considered as one of the main causes of the urban sprawl, as a tool linked to other phenomena like the compounds, the large urban sprawl urbanizations with detached typologies and golf clubs. Development of the cities and antrophization of territories cannot be understood without economic reasons. Both of them can be explained through the Economic history studies. In fact, Tony Garnier based all his urban design of the new cities concept on the economic activities to be developed as the engine for them. (Fig 3 and 4) Figure 1. Agora in Athens.Reconstruction by G. Rehlender. From: SpamersillustrierteWeltgeschichte (Spamer’s illustrated history of the world) vol. 1, by O. Kaemmel and R. Sturmhoefel, Leipzig, 1893. Figure 2.Market place, Norwich. 1854. From: Norwich Museum & Art Gallery. Figure 3. Tony Garnier, UneCitéindustrielle. Ètude pour la construction des villes, 1917. Figure 4. Tony Garnier. Proposal for a French city of 35.000 inhabitants. The harmonious growing processes were based on a balanced relation between Territories and economies settled on them. The break of this balance provoked in each case anomalous reactions transformed into economic crises or city abandonments by appearing in the contemporary times the shrinking processes. Detroit city was largely studied in the last decades(Adedeji&Arayela, 2017) . These phenomena cannot only be understood from the urban scale but also they can be upgraded to territories. Cities are the “natural” scenario for developing human activities, even the economic ones. The interrelation among the several cities needs this territorial support, as the basis for the territorial antrophization. They cannot be understood without the economic reasons beyond that. In fact Factory-cities, or cities with a dominant economy activity based on such specific production, like mining or cars are repeating cycles alongside the History. Detroit is a clear contemporary example for that. (Figure 5 and 6)

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Some Notes about Architecture, Urbanism and Economy *Dr.JOSE MANUEL PAGES MADRIGAL University of Genova, Italy E mail: jmpmadrigal@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Economy can be considered as the transversal component of the human activities over territories. This fact can be observed from a diachronic perspective: the way how architectural typologies arose through history. But the relations between Economy and Architecture are not only established by the small scales but the larger ones. Cities and territories evolved from compact forms till spread ones in a parallel way to the arousal of the shopping areas. Urban sprawl could never be understood without these new typologies. The paper is based on the key note speech was held in the International seminar “Economy today” last September 2017 in Andrićgrad (Bosnia and Herzegovina). It is divided in two blocks: the first one relates to a general review of the historical reflections of this relation with a special mention to the consequences of an economic crisis either in the landscape or urban scales. The second part, partially included in the conclusions, reflects on the necessary changes in the university curriculums for a better visualization of this relation. It would imply new attitudes able to explain most of the architectural processes as the formal result of a larger interaction. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3663 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Architecture and urban planning as human activities, are necessarily linked to Economy. The economical component is present in their respective design processes, since they need funds to be developed. There are not urban forms without relations with economy, but at the same time it is difficult to understand the economy without an urban basis supporting it. Urban societies were the perfect location for sharing the first trading experiences. That is the reason why cities reflected this relation since the first ages. There are a lot of examples through History: Agoras (Figure 1), Forums, Souks and Medieval markets (Figure 2) are good paradigms of these relations. Their respective different cultures are beyond these simple urban forms. Galleries and arcades during the 19th were in fact the precedents of the 20th mall centers, meanwhile the Central market typologies arose in the main cities of the planet. All these typologies provoked different reactions and they were engines of new territorial or urban developments. Shopping centers proliferated during the second half of the 20th century. They can be considered as one of the main causes of the urban sprawl, as a tool linked to other phenomena like the compounds, the large urban sprawl urbanizations with detached typologies and golf clubs. Development of the cities and antrophization of territories cannot be understood without economic reasons. Both of them can be explained through the Economic history studies. In fact, Tony Garnier based all his urban design of the new cities concept on the economic activities to be developed as the engine for them. (Fig 3 and 4) Figure 1. Agora in Athens.Reconstruction by G. Rehlender. From: SpamersillustrierteWeltgeschichte (Spamer’s illustrated history of the world) vol. 1, by O. Kaemmel and R. Sturmhoefel, Leipzig, 1893. Figure 2.Market place, Norwich. 1854. From: Norwich Museum & Art Gallery. Figure 3. Tony Garnier, UneCitéindustrielle. Ètude pour la construction des villes, 1917. Figure 4. Tony Garnier. Proposal for a French city of 35.000 inhabitants. The harmonious growing processes were based on a balanced relation between Territories and economies settled on them. The break of this balance provoked in each case anomalous reactions transformed into economic crises or city abandonments by appearing in the contemporary times the shrinking processes. Detroit city was largely studied in the last decades(Adedeji&Arayela, 2017) . These phenomena cannot only be understood from the urban scale but also they can be upgraded to territories. Cities are the “natural” scenario for developing human activities, even the economic ones. The interrelation among the several cities needs this territorial support, as the basis for the territorial antrophization. They cannot be understood without the economic reasons beyond that. In fact Factory-cities, or cities with a dominant economy activity based on such specific production, like mining or cars are repeating cycles alongside the History. Detroit is a clear contemporary example for that. (Figure 5 and 6)

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: Some Notes about Architecture, Urbanism and Economy, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, October 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3663.
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