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A B S T R A C T One of the negative effects of the high rate and pace of urbanisation in developing countries is the decay of urban centres. While this decay has eaten deep into the fabric of these settlements turning them into urban slums and ghettoes with poor infrastructure, the effects of the decay are multifarious. Despite the fact that economy is the “life-wire” of urban centres, its untold downturn consequent upon urban decay is unimaginable because of the relationship that exists between environmental quality and economic growth. This calls for a proactive approach called urban renewal towards creation of successful urban places. This paper therefore reviews urban renewal strategies and their implications on economic growth with particular focus on Ondo State, Nigeria towards identifying the means of enhancing the sustainability of its economic proceeds. The study relied on secondary information sources and discovered that appropriate urban renewal strategies yields corresponding economic growth. The paper asserts that the urban renewal fit achieved in the state during the period 2009 to 2012 can be replicated in other states in Nigeria if similar political willpower is available. The paper recommends the participation of the public combined with appropriate strategies in urban renewal schemes for the best result and argues in conclusion that urban renewal is the only feasible solution to the current dwindling economic sector in Nigeria and other developing economies.

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Urban Renewal Strategies and Economic Growth in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Case Study *Dr.JOSEPH ADENIRAN ADEDEJI1,Dr.OLATUNDE ARAYELA 2 1 &2Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, The Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Nigeria E mail: jaadedeji@futa.edu.ng , E mail: aratuns@gmail.com A B S T R A C T One of the negative effects of the high rate and pace of urbanisation in developing countries is the decay of urban centres. While this decay has eaten deep into the fabric of these settlements turning them into urban slums and ghettoes with poor infrastructure, the effects of the decay are multifarious. Despite the fact that economy is the “life-wire” of urban centres, its untold downturn consequent upon urban decay is unimaginable because of the relationship that exists between environmental quality and economic growth. This calls for a proactive approach called urban renewal towards creation of successful urban places. This paper therefore reviews urban renewal strategies and their implications on economic growth with particular focus on Ondo State, Nigeria towards identifying the means of enhancing the sustainability of its economic proceeds. The study relied on secondary information sources and discovered that appropriate urban renewal strategies yields corresponding economic growth. The paper asserts that the urban renewal fit achieved in the state during the period 2009 to 2012 can be replicated in other states in Nigeria if similar political willpower is available. The paper recommends the participation of the public combined with appropriate strategies in urban renewal schemes for the best result and argues in conclusion that urban renewal is the only feasible solution to the current dwindling economic sector in Nigeria and other developing economies. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3662 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The creation of successful urban place is not only germane to the effective functioning of our city centres but crucial to life in the cities which is hinged upon economic growth. Unfortunately, the built environment of urban centres in many developing countries like Nigeria is fast decaying (Ahianba,Ahianba, Dimuna&Okogun, 2008). While the spate of the decay is continually worsening, its spread varies in magnitude from city to city with consequential grave economic implications. Collapsing existing urban infrastructural facilities or complete lack of them in some urban centres, indiscriminate change of use, lack of use, abuse of use, unused and disuse of urban lands, which develops into slum, blight and decay of urban centres, unregulated development of urban fringes, which lead into development of ghetto and squatter settlements are among the too-numerous evidences of the decay in Nigerian urban centres. Others include incidence of urban villages and rise in crime rate, negative impacts of informal economic sector, and congestion of transport corridors, human induced disasters like fire outbreak, flood and erosion, incidence of destitution, homelessness, overcrowding, poverty, crime and diseases. The World Bank (2005) attributed this malaise to rapid urbanization, rural-urban migration and decades of speedy economic downturn, among others. These conditions will continue unabated except sustainable urban renewal strategies are formulated and implemented in urban centres. Presently, because of the causal relationship between the quality of the urban environment and economic activities, Nigeria is presently experiencing urbanisation of poverty (Babanyara1, Usman & Saleh, 2010) in the urban centres. With the increasing scale and pace of urbanisation in Nigeria (Fadamiro&Adedeji, 2009; Arenibafo, 2016), the hope for economic growth amidst unstable public economic policies, global economic crises and its attendant consequences on developing nations, coupled with lip-service attention paid to environmental quality issues by the government, is dizzy. The outcome is a weak environmental support for economic activities in urban centres. This paper therefore reviews the impact of urban renewal strategies on economic growth in Nigeria with focus on Ondo State towards identifying the means of enhancing the sustainability of its economic proceeds. This becomes necessary in view of the importance of the economic sector as the major ‘driver’ of sustainable human settlements at all spatial scales from village to towns, cities, megacities and megalopolis. 2. The Need for Urban Renewal The myriads of urban problems that have far-reaching economic implications on the urban populace can be identified as follow: Collapsing existing urban infrastructural facilities or complete lack of them in some urban centres; Increasing rate of street trading street parking and encroachment on road setbacks by informal activities as a result of lack of organized markets and shopping centres/shopping malls; Congestion of transport infrastructure-road and its precincts in particular, manifesting in accidents, hold-up and go-slow (Adedeji, Fadamiro&Adeoye, 2014). Others include human induced disasters like fire outbreak, flood and erosion; Inefficient urban infrastructure and utilities like power, water, drainage, hospitals, post and telecommunication; Unsanitary conditions resulting from poor waste disposal methods and blockage of drains (where they are available); Incidence of destitution, homelessness, overcrowding, poverty crime and diseases; Landlocked developments resulting from unorganized and unregulated new developments which cause lack of access to some land use activities; Lack of adequate data for policy makers, administrators, researchers and urban managers; Rural neglect, which results from sentimental regional development plans; Destruction of urban aesthetics as a result of lack of organized open space and destruction of informal open spaces. While the national status of the problem has been acknowledged, the magnitude of its presence in Ondo State cannot be overemphasized. 3. Theoretical Framework of Urban Renewal Urban renewal has been described as a deliberate effort to change the urban environment through planned, large-scale adjustment of existing city areas to present and future requirements for urban living and working (Grebler, 1965; Osuide, 2004). According to Tetlow and Goss (1968), it is the elimination of excessive noises, smells and atmospheric pollution especially from the residential scene. Urban renewal or redevelopment has been considered as a tool to solving the problem of squatter settlement (Aluko&Amidu, 2006) and its theories were largely influenced by social, economic and historical developments as well as city planning movements immediately after the Second World War. Indeed, many countries embarked on rebuilding efforts, characterized by demolition of old dilapidated areas, large-scale clearance of city slums and construction of modern high- rises after the war (Gbadegesin, Oladokun&Ayorinde, 2011). Often, urban renewal schemes are fraught with many challenges which can be grouped into: Physical: The proposed sites for the project may possess great challenges to its implementation.

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Urban Renewal Strategies and Economic Growth in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Case Study *Dr.JOSEPH ADENIRAN ADEDEJI1,Dr.OLATUNDE ARAYELA 2 1 &2Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, The Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Nigeria E mail: jaadedeji@futa.edu.ng , E mail: aratuns@gmail.com A B S T R A C T One of the negative effects of the high rate and pace of urbanisation in developing countries is the decay of urban centres. While this decay has eaten deep into the fabric of these settlements turning them into urban slums and ghettoes with poor infrastructure, the effects of the decay are multifarious. Despite the fact that economy is the “life-wire” of urban centres, its untold downturn consequent upon urban decay is unimaginable because of the relationship that exists between environmental quality and economic growth. This calls for a proactive approach called urban renewal towards creation of successful urban places. This paper therefore reviews urban renewal strategies and their implications on economic growth with particular focus on Ondo State, Nigeria towards identifying the means of enhancing the sustainability of its economic proceeds. The study relied on secondary information sources and discovered that appropriate urban renewal strategies yields corresponding economic growth. The paper asserts that the urban renewal fit achieved in the state during the period 2009 to 2012 can be replicated in other states in Nigeria if similar political willpower is available. The paper recommends the participation of the public combined with appropriate strategies in urban renewal schemes for the best result and argues in conclusion that urban renewal is the only feasible solution to the current dwindling economic sector in Nigeria and other developing economies. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3662 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The creation of successful urban place is not only germane to the effective functioning of our city centres but crucial to life in the cities which is hinged upon economic growth. Unfortunately, the built environment of urban centres in many developing countries like Nigeria is fast decaying (Ahianba,Ahianba, Dimuna&Okogun, 2008). While the spate of the decay is continually worsening, its spread varies in magnitude from city to city with consequential grave economic implications. Collapsing existing urban infrastructural facilities or complete lack of them in some urban centres, indiscriminate change of use, lack of use, abuse of use, unused and disuse of urban lands, which develops into slum, blight and decay of urban centres, unregulated development of urban fringes, which lead into development of ghetto and squatter settlements are among the too-numerous evidences of the decay in Nigerian urban centres. Others include incidence of urban villages and rise in crime rate, negative impacts of informal economic sector, and congestion of transport corridors, human induced disasters like fire outbreak, flood and erosion, incidence of destitution, homelessness, overcrowding, poverty, crime and diseases. The World Bank (2005) attributed this malaise to rapid urbanization, rural-urban migration and decades of speedy economic downturn, among others. These conditions will continue unabated except sustainable urban renewal strategies are formulated and implemented in urban centres. Presently, because of the causal relationship between the quality of the urban environment and economic activities, Nigeria is presently experiencing urbanisation of poverty (Babanyara1, Usman & Saleh, 2010) in the urban centres. With the increasing scale and pace of urbanisation in Nigeria (Fadamiro&Adedeji, 2009; Arenibafo, 2016), the hope for economic growth amidst unstable public economic policies, global economic crises and its attendant consequences on developing nations, coupled with lip-service attention paid to environmental quality issues by the government, is dizzy. The outcome is a weak environmental support for economic activities in urban centres. This paper therefore reviews the impact of urban renewal strategies on economic growth in Nigeria with focus on Ondo State towards identifying the means of enhancing the sustainability of its economic proceeds. This becomes necessary in view of the importance of the economic sector as the major ‘driver’ of sustainable human settlements at all spatial scales from village to towns, cities, megacities and megalopolis. 2. The Need for Urban Renewal The myriads of urban problems that have far-reaching economic implications on the urban populace can be identified as follow: Collapsing existing urban infrastructural facilities or complete lack of them in some urban centres; Increasing rate of street trading street parking and encroachment on road setbacks by informal activities as a result of lack of organized markets and shopping centres/shopping malls; Congestion of transport infrastructure-road and its precincts in particular, manifesting in accidents, hold-up and go-slow (Adedeji, Fadamiro&Adeoye, 2014). Others include human induced disasters like fire outbreak, flood and erosion; Inefficient urban infrastructure and utilities like power, water, drainage, hospitals, post and telecommunication; Unsanitary conditions resulting from poor waste disposal methods and blockage of drains (where they are available); Incidence of destitution, homelessness, overcrowding, poverty crime and diseases; Landlocked developments resulting from unorganized and unregulated new developments which cause lack of access to some land use activities; Lack of adequate data for policy makers, administrators, researchers and urban managers; Rural neglect, which results from sentimental regional development plans; Destruction of urban aesthetics as a result of lack of organized open space and destruction of informal open spaces. While the national status of the problem has been acknowledged, the magnitude of its presence in Ondo State cannot be overemphasized. 3. Theoretical Framework of Urban Renewal Urban renewal has been described as a deliberate effort to change the urban environment through planned, large-scale adjustment of existing city areas to present and future requirements for urban living and working (Grebler, 1965; Osuide, 2004). According to Tetlow and Goss (1968), it is the elimination of excessive noises, smells and atmospheric pollution especially from the residential scene. Urban renewal or redevelopment has been considered as a tool to solving the problem of squatter settlement (Aluko&Amidu, 2006) and its theories were largely influenced by social, economic and historical developments as well as city planning movements immediately after the Second World War. Indeed, many countries embarked on rebuilding efforts, characterized by demolition of old dilapidated areas, large-scale clearance of city slums and construction of modern high- rises after the war (Gbadegesin, Oladokun&Ayorinde, 2011). Often, urban renewal schemes are fraught with many challenges which can be grouped into: Physical: The proposed sites for the project may possess great challenges to its implementation.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: Urban Renewal Strategies and Economic Growth in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Case Study, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, October 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3662.
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