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Identity in Changing Context: Factors of losing Identity in new developed part of the city of Famagusta, North Cyprus *Dr. Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia1,MA.YousifHussien Suleiman2 1 &2Department of Architecture, NawrozUniversity, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq E mail: hourakhsh_ahmadnia@yahoo.com , E mail:Yousif.Sulaiman@nawroz.edu.krd A B S T R A C T Historical cities due to its magnificent building in its context have tremendous influence on formation of city identity, which is created through the interaction of natural, social and built elements. Unfortunately modernization after the industrial revolution couldn’t adapt itself to vernacular area, owe to the fact that cities began to lose their identity and sense of belonging to the environment. New technology of construction lets the cities to expand itself outside, but in this transformation, some factors which have an influence on the identity of the city have been forgotten. In this research it is aimed to analysis Physical and social factors which are causing the loss of identity in the city of Famagusta (Gazimagusa). Both qualitative and qualitative methods have been used in this research and the adopted techniques are personal observation, sketches, and comparing new development part of the city with traditional part. The research will try to answer the question of why urban sprawl could not maintain the identity of the city of Gazimagusa?). This research revealed that Globalization by neglecting historical housing principles is the main factor which threatening identity of the city. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(2), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3661 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved.

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Identity in Changing Context: Factors of losing Identity in new developed part of the city of Famagusta, North Cyprus *Dr. Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia1,MA.YousifHussien Suleiman2 1 &2Department of Architecture, NawrozUniversity, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq E mail: hourakhsh_ahmadnia@yahoo.com , E mail:Yousif.Sulaiman@nawroz.edu.krd A B S T R A C T Historical cities due to its magnificent building in its context have tremendous influence on formation of city identity, which is created through the interaction of natural, social and built elements. Unfortunately modernization after the industrial revolution couldn’t adapt itself to vernacular area, owe to the fact that cities began to lose their identity and sense of belonging to the environment. New technology of construction lets the cities to expand itself outside, but in this transformation, some factors which have an influence on the identity of the city have been forgotten. In this research it is aimed to analysis Physical and social factors which are causing the loss of identity in the city of Famagusta (Gazimagusa). Both qualitative and qualitative methods have been used in this research and the adopted techniques are personal observation, sketches, and comparing new development part of the city with traditional part. The research will try to answer the question of why urban sprawl could not maintain the identity of the city of Gazimagusa?). This research revealed that Globalization by neglecting historical housing principles is the main factor which threatening identity of the city. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(2), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3661 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction “City identity is a strong concept or conditions that differ cities from other locations. The city identity creates images in people's mind even that haven't seen it before. It is an essential characteristic for creating better environments” (Fasli, 2010). Unfortunately in the new development part of cities there is not any potential to attract people to place. These places converted to lost spaces due to lack of mixed use functionality. The new places don’t have meaning to its users. In this area the role of Globalization in the new development part of the city should be considered, it seems that the Globalization by changing in social and cultural structure changes meaning of identity of cities. Understanding which factors have more effect on the changing identity of the city of Famagusta in new development part of the city related to its traditional housing environment, will be the main issue in this research. In this study, the city identity related to its Physical, socio-economic, socio-cultural structures and historical factors will be explained. 1.1. Literature review 1.1.1 Globalization and its effect of urban context By considering the meaning of Globalization “the act of globalizing, or extending to other or all parts of the world and Worldwide integration or development” (Dictionary, 2012), it's obvious that the process of globalization is against the cultural and regional identity of a city. It means that “globalization has resulted in the loss of some individual cultural identities” (Kutsal, 2012). The context of urban area in these recent decades has been radically changed. Similar patterns of housing construction rapidly expanded itself all around the world. Unfortunately the process of Globalization and similar construction ruined city's historical icons which had influence on the identity of the cities. Socio cultural, social physical changes in the context of the city changes fashion and lifestyle of the peoples. It's obvious that during the past decades the world has been changed because of technological innovation and global restructuring. Since the first decades of the twenty century. Nowadays the processes of Globalization affect all countries, thus this led to effects on social and cultural lives. “The globalization process leads the cities to be in a uniformed type; eventually, influences the living spaces, architecture and urban identity. The economic changes take place as a result of the development process of the cities, where urban image differs and changes” (Kutsal, 2012). “Globalization is now an unstoppable historical process led by technological change and involving the dissemination of science and new technologies” (Eldemery, 2009). 1.1.2 The effect of Globalization on Urban sprawl Because of the essence of technology, and rapidly increasing population of the city and due to dynamic of urban growth the city has to be expanded itself to outside. Mass housing construction without attention to its surrounding and Environmental and Social Identity (e.g., Socio-Cultural, Socio-Political, Socio-Economic) for this reason scholars called this phenomena as urban sprawl. In the literature of urban planning or urban economics, “there is a big debate on even the definition of urban sprawl itself, let alone its causes and impacts” (Gordon and Richardson, 1997; Ewing, 1997; Fischel, 1999; Brueckner, 2001). Generally, the definition of urban sprawl appears that, “First, it has to be an inefficient or an excessive urban expansion, which certainly involves some benchmark of ‘normal’ or efficient urban structure; second, if determined inefficient or excessive, the spatial pattern may be in leapfrog development, low density, or some other forms” (Deng, 2004). This discussion revealed that global technology of construction lets the city to expand itself outside, but in this transformation, some factors which have an influence on the identity of the city have been forgotten. For this reason it’s obvious to say that Globalization by neglecting icons of identity of a city in transformation period create images of unsustainable city. 2. Methodology Famagusta (Gazimagusta) city in North Cyrus has a problem of urban sprawl with two types of free standing villas and cubic form of four or five story buildings which don't have any relationship with its surroundings. In this era, understanding why urban sprawl could not maintain the identity of the city will be the main issue in this research.

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Identity in Changing Context: Factors of losing Identity in new developed part of the city of Famagusta, North Cyprus *Dr. Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia1,MA.YousifHussien Suleiman2 1 &2Department of Architecture, NawrozUniversity, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq E mail: hourakhsh_ahmadnia@yahoo.com , E mail:Yousif.Sulaiman@nawroz.edu.krd A B S T R A C T Historical cities due to its magnificent building in its context have tremendous influence on formation of city identity, which is created through the interaction of natural, social and built elements. Unfortunately modernization after the industrial revolution couldn’t adapt itself to vernacular area, owe to the fact that cities began to lose their identity and sense of belonging to the environment. New technology of construction lets the cities to expand itself outside, but in this transformation, some factors which have an influence on the identity of the city have been forgotten. In this research it is aimed to analysis Physical and social factors which are causing the loss of identity in the city of Famagusta (Gazimagusa). Both qualitative and qualitative methods have been used in this research and the adopted techniques are personal observation, sketches, and comparing new development part of the city with traditional part. The research will try to answer the question of why urban sprawl could not maintain the identity of the city of Gazimagusa?). This research revealed that Globalization by neglecting historical housing principles is the main factor which threatening identity of the city. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(2), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3661 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction “City identity is a strong concept or conditions that differ cities from other locations. The city identity creates images in people's mind even that haven't seen it before. It is an essential characteristic for creating better environments” (Fasli, 2010). Unfortunately in the new development part of cities there is not any potential to attract people to place. These places converted to lost spaces due to lack of mixed use functionality. The new places don’t have meaning to its users. In this area the role of Globalization in the new development part of the city should be considered, it seems that the Globalization by changing in social and cultural structure changes meaning of identity of cities. Understanding which factors have more effect on the changing identity of the city of Famagusta in new development part of the city related to its traditional housing environment, will be the main issue in this research. In this study, the city identity related to its Physical, socio-economic, socio-cultural structures and historical factors will be explained. 1.1. Literature review 1.1.1 Globalization and its effect of urban context By considering the meaning of Globalization “the act of globalizing, or extending to other or all parts of the world and Worldwide integration or development” (Dictionary, 2012), it's obvious that the process of globalization is against the cultural and regional identity of a city. It means that “globalization has resulted in the loss of some individual cultural identities” (Kutsal, 2012). The context of urban area in these recent decades has been radically changed. Similar patterns of housing construction rapidly expanded itself all around the world. Unfortunately the process of Globalization and similar construction ruined city's historical icons which had influence on the identity of the cities. Socio cultural, social physical changes in the context of the city changes fashion and lifestyle of the peoples. It's obvious that during the past decades the world has been changed because of technological innovation and global restructuring. Since the first decades of the twenty century. Nowadays the processes of Globalization affect all countries, thus this led to effects on social and cultural lives. “The globalization process leads the cities to be in a uniformed type; eventually, influences the living spaces, architecture and urban identity. The economic changes take place as a result of the development process of the cities, where urban image differs and changes” (Kutsal, 2012). “Globalization is now an unstoppable historical process led by technological change and involving the dissemination of science and new technologies” (Eldemery, 2009). 1.1.2 The effect of Globalization on Urban sprawl Because of the essence of technology, and rapidly increasing population of the city and due to dynamic of urban growth the city has to be expanded itself to outside. Mass housing construction without attention to its surrounding and Environmental and Social Identity (e.g., Socio-Cultural, Socio-Political, Socio-Economic) for this reason scholars called this phenomena as urban sprawl. In the literature of urban planning or urban economics, “there is a big debate on even the definition of urban sprawl itself, let alone its causes and impacts” (Gordon and Richardson, 1997; Ewing, 1997; Fischel, 1999; Brueckner, 2001). Generally, the definition of urban sprawl appears that, “First, it has to be an inefficient or an excessive urban expansion, which certainly involves some benchmark of ‘normal’ or efficient urban structure; second, if determined inefficient or excessive, the spatial pattern may be in leapfrog development, low density, or some other forms” (Deng, 2004). This discussion revealed that global technology of construction lets the city to expand itself outside, but in this transformation, some factors which have an influence on the identity of the city have been forgotten. For this reason it’s obvious to say that Globalization by neglecting icons of identity of a city in transformation period create images of unsustainable city. 2. Methodology Famagusta (Gazimagusta) city in North Cyrus has a problem of urban sprawl with two types of free standing villas and cubic form of four or five story buildings which don't have any relationship with its surroundings. In this era, understanding why urban sprawl could not maintain the identity of the city will be the main issue in this research.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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