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A B S T R A C T Throughout the past few decades, research has demonstrated that climatic factors are some of the most important issues to be considered in respect of energy consumption in buildings. Climatic factors, therefore, directly influence the economic sector. In order to study the impact of climatic factors in Karakol residential buildings in terms of energy consumption, an evaluation of the studies (literature survey) effected in relevant climates, and the analysis of the existing buildings according to these studies is essential. This represents the aim of this research and the other is to present design strategies for minimizing the negative impact of climatic factors on energy demand in these buildings. To approach the research objectives, the climate of the region was initially investigated. In an attempt to evaluate some of the current housing in the Karakol district of Famagusta in terms of the climatic factors, three types of residential apartments were identified and evaluated through observation, interview, and also by the distribution and complication of qualitative and statistical questionnaires to and by the occupants of the apartments. In this paper, basic climatic problems, as a result of which lead to increased energy consumption in residential apartments in respect of heating and cooling were identified and reported.

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Evaluating energy consumption in terms of climatic factors:A case study of Karakol residential apartments, Famagusta, North Cyprus *Dr.ROKHSANEH RAHBARIANYAZD1,Dr.LAYLA RASWOL2 1&2Department of Architecture, NawrozUniversity, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq E mail: rokhsaneh.rahbarianyazd@gmail.comE mail: layla.raswol@uod.ac A B S T R A C T Throughout the past few decades, research has demonstrated that climatic factors are some of the most important issues to be considered in respect of energy consumption in buildings. Climatic factors, therefore, directly influence the economic sector. In order to study the impact of climatic factors in Karakol residential buildings in terms of energy consumption, an evaluation of the studies (literature survey) effected in relevant climates, and the analysis of the existing buildings according to these studies is essential. This represents the aim of this research and the other is to present design strategies for minimizing the negative impact of climatic factors on energy demand in these buildings. To approach the research objectives, the climate of the region was initially investigated. In an attempt to evaluate some of the current housing in the Karakol district of Famagusta in terms of the climatic factors, three types of residential apartments were identified and evaluated through observation, interview, and also by the distribution and complication of qualitative and statistical questionnaires to and by the occupants of the apartments. In this paper, basic climatic problems, as a result of which lead to increased energy consumption in residential apartments in respect of heating and cooling were identified and reported. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 45-54. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3658 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In most societies such as United States (EIA , 1999) and also India (Indraganti, 2010) the use of energy in residential buildings for heating and cooling which provides thermal comfort, is one of the highest consuming sector. Providing comfortable and adequate working conditions for occupants in buildings necessitate the need to control the climatic factors of the building. For instance, the issues of temperature control, humidity, lighting and ventilation require the utilization of energy. On the other hand, successful energy conservation is achieved by aiming for the least possible energy consumption and this will be achieved through the support and awareness of both the architect and the resident (Landsberg& Stewart, 1980, p.3-5). As is demonstrated by the research, energy consumption can be influenced by climatic factors such as temperature, winds, moisture or precipitation and many other factors, so these factors equally and directly have influence on the economic sector and present a major problem in residential apartment buildings, which are generally chosen by people with lower incomes, who wish to have less expensive housing, but who, in fact, because of inappropriate design features and up paying out more than in necessary for energy consumption. Buildings are comprised of two parts: the interior and the exterior surfaces (roof, external walls, glazing, and floor). Climatic factors impact on the exterior surface of buildings and the energy transmission because of the difference temperature and also surface transmission coefficient will be done by these exterior surfaces (Landsberg& Stewart 1980, P.16-20). In the US between the years 1973–1984, the sudden increase in energy costs attracted the attention of architects to the issue of energy management in buildings. As a result of this awareness and focus, the energy efficiency of buildings greatly improved in respect of improving the design and functioning of windows, roof and wall insulation, and heating and cooling systems, etc. (Galloway, 2004, p.182). As a result using appropriate materials in external walls and design methods for the existing climatic condition factors is essential. A literature survey on the residential buildings in the relevant climatic condition was carried out to identify typical designs developed in respect of climate. The construction of buildings as per climatic factors is an excellent case for addressing the issue of energy consumption efficiency. 2. Methodology Qualitative and qualitative approach methods have been used in this research and the techniques applied are those of personal observation, in depth interviews, administered qualitative and statistical questionnaires with closed-end questions, review of related literature, and internet sources. In general the most significant important factors that impact on energy consumption are: location and climate data of the building, orientation of the building, installed materials, building design and the selecting of the technical systems (Leskovar, &Premrov, 2011). This study attempts to survey some of these items due to literature review and as aforementioned three residential apartments have been identified in the Karakol districtwhich is shown in figure 2. Analyzes have been done through interviews and questionnaire with the occupants of the Karakol district. 3. Climate zone survey The district of Karakol in Famagusta has a transition climate, which lies between a composite and a hot, humid climate, however because of proximity to the sea it is called hot-humid climate (Özdeniz and Hançer, 2005; Hançer, 2005). 4. Literature survey of the relevant climate on buildings In order to evaluate the impact of climatic factors on residential buildings in Karakol_ in terms of energy consumption, it is necessary to survey_ the literature review and analyze the buildings in this area. 4.1 Orientation Oktay’s (2002) evaluation of the vernacular housing in Northern Cyprus, which were adapted for the hot and humid climate, offered useful suggestions such as orienting living spaces towards the south using light colors on the external walls and roofs in order to reflect the sunshine, using a narrow plan with opposite windows in order to create cross-ventilation and thus creating and designing more sustainable conditions for new buildings. According to Givoni (1994) creating cross ventilation in buildings with two openings in different walls (one of which is facing to the wind direction) for all the rooms in a hot-humid climate is very useful. Providing these openings for each room in buildings especially apartment buildings, but ensuring the free flow of air between all rooms in the buildings is essential.

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Evaluating energy consumption in terms of climatic factors:A case study of Karakol residential apartments, Famagusta, North Cyprus *Dr.ROKHSANEH RAHBARIANYAZD1,Dr.LAYLA RASWOL2 1&2Department of Architecture, NawrozUniversity, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq E mail: rokhsaneh.rahbarianyazd@gmail.comE mail: layla.raswol@uod.ac A B S T R A C T Throughout the past few decades, research has demonstrated that climatic factors are some of the most important issues to be considered in respect of energy consumption in buildings. Climatic factors, therefore, directly influence the economic sector. In order to study the impact of climatic factors in Karakol residential buildings in terms of energy consumption, an evaluation of the studies (literature survey) effected in relevant climates, and the analysis of the existing buildings according to these studies is essential. This represents the aim of this research and the other is to present design strategies for minimizing the negative impact of climatic factors on energy demand in these buildings. To approach the research objectives, the climate of the region was initially investigated. In an attempt to evaluate some of the current housing in the Karakol district of Famagusta in terms of the climatic factors, three types of residential apartments were identified and evaluated through observation, interview, and also by the distribution and complication of qualitative and statistical questionnaires to and by the occupants of the apartments. In this paper, basic climatic problems, as a result of which lead to increased energy consumption in residential apartments in respect of heating and cooling were identified and reported. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 45-54. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3658 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In most societies such as United States (EIA , 1999) and also India (Indraganti, 2010) the use of energy in residential buildings for heating and cooling which provides thermal comfort, is one of the highest consuming sector. Providing comfortable and adequate working conditions for occupants in buildings necessitate the need to control the climatic factors of the building. For instance, the issues of temperature control, humidity, lighting and ventilation require the utilization of energy. On the other hand, successful energy conservation is achieved by aiming for the least possible energy consumption and this will be achieved through the support and awareness of both the architect and the resident (Landsberg& Stewart, 1980, p.3-5). As is demonstrated by the research, energy consumption can be influenced by climatic factors such as temperature, winds, moisture or precipitation and many other factors, so these factors equally and directly have influence on the economic sector and present a major problem in residential apartment buildings, which are generally chosen by people with lower incomes, who wish to have less expensive housing, but who, in fact, because of inappropriate design features and up paying out more than in necessary for energy consumption. Buildings are comprised of two parts: the interior and the exterior surfaces (roof, external walls, glazing, and floor). Climatic factors impact on the exterior surface of buildings and the energy transmission because of the difference temperature and also surface transmission coefficient will be done by these exterior surfaces (Landsberg& Stewart 1980, P.16-20). In the US between the years 1973–1984, the sudden increase in energy costs attracted the attention of architects to the issue of energy management in buildings. As a result of this awareness and focus, the energy efficiency of buildings greatly improved in respect of improving the design and functioning of windows, roof and wall insulation, and heating and cooling systems, etc. (Galloway, 2004, p.182). As a result using appropriate materials in external walls and design methods for the existing climatic condition factors is essential. A literature survey on the residential buildings in the relevant climatic condition was carried out to identify typical designs developed in respect of climate. The construction of buildings as per climatic factors is an excellent case for addressing the issue of energy consumption efficiency. 2. Methodology Qualitative and qualitative approach methods have been used in this research and the techniques applied are those of personal observation, in depth interviews, administered qualitative and statistical questionnaires with closed-end questions, review of related literature, and internet sources. In general the most significant important factors that impact on energy consumption are: location and climate data of the building, orientation of the building, installed materials, building design and the selecting of the technical systems (Leskovar, &Premrov, 2011). This study attempts to survey some of these items due to literature review and as aforementioned three residential apartments have been identified in the Karakol districtwhich is shown in figure 2. Analyzes have been done through interviews and questionnaire with the occupants of the Karakol district. 3. Climate zone survey The district of Karakol in Famagusta has a transition climate, which lies between a composite and a hot, humid climate, however because of proximity to the sea it is called hot-humid climate (Özdeniz and Hançer, 2005; Hançer, 2005). 4. Literature survey of the relevant climate on buildings In order to evaluate the impact of climatic factors on residential buildings in Karakol_ in terms of energy consumption, it is necessary to survey_ the literature review and analyze the buildings in this area. 4.1 Orientation Oktay’s (2002) evaluation of the vernacular housing in Northern Cyprus, which were adapted for the hot and humid climate, offered useful suggestions such as orienting living spaces towards the south using light colors on the external walls and roofs in order to reflect the sunshine, using a narrow plan with opposite windows in order to create cross-ventilation and thus creating and designing more sustainable conditions for new buildings. According to Givoni (1994) creating cross ventilation in buildings with two openings in different walls (one of which is facing to the wind direction) for all the rooms in a hot-humid climate is very useful. Providing these openings for each room in buildings especially apartment buildings, but ensuring the free flow of air between all rooms in the buildings is essential.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Evaluating energy consumption in terms of climatic factors: A case study of Karakol residential apartments, Famagusta, North Cyprus, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, June 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3658.
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