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A B S T R A C T Modernist architecture movement of the buildings in any city reflects the modernity of that city. Lefkoşa as a modern city faced many conflicts in the last century. The governmental buildings illustrate how modernism in architecture was defined and reflected in the buildings of the city. The aim of this paper is to explore the modernism movement in architecture influence on educational governmental buildings in Lefkoşa for first half in 20th century. The paper focuses on the ideas and experiences of modernist architects in first half of 20th century to apply modernism elements, and relationship between architecture form and functionalism in governmental buildings. Methodology frame work elucidated to conduct the subject. Two School buildings have been selected from the first half of twentieth century in Lefkoşa as case studies for modernist architecture. ‘Lefkoşatürklisesi’ designed by ‘Ahmet vuralBahaedden’, which was the one of famous modernist architects in Cyprus and ‘ŞehitErtuğrulIlkokulu’. The buildings architectural elements analyzed in both schools to demonstrate relation between site, interior space, functionality and environmental response, based on using their modern material and character. The paper concluded that the educational buildings hold strong elements of the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa and demonstrate how the elements of modernism were involved functionally in the design. The findings contribute useful evidence about the existence of modernism philosophy in architecture in Lefkoşa in the first half of twentieth century.

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The Presence of Modernist Architecture in Government’s educational Buildings at Lefkoşa *Ph.D. CandidateMARYAM IRANFAR Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, BharatiVydiapeeth University, Pune, Maharashtra- India E mail: maryam.iranfar32@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Modernist architecture movement of the buildings in any city reflects the modernity of that city. Lefkoşa as a modern city faced many conflicts in the last century. The governmental buildings illustrate how modernism in architecture was defined and reflected in the buildings of the city. The aim of this paper is to explore the modernism movement in architecture influence on educational governmental buildings in Lefkoşa for first half in 20th century. The paper focuses on the ideas and experiences of modernist architects in first half of 20th century to apply modernism elements, and relationship between architecture form and functionalism in governmental buildings. Methodology frame work elucidated to conduct the subject. Two School buildings have been selected from the first half of twentieth century in Lefkoşa as case studies for modernist architecture. ‘Lefkoşatürklisesi’ designed by ‘Ahmet vuralBahaedden’, which was the one of famous modernist architects in Cyprus and ‘ŞehitErtuğrulIlkokulu’. The buildings architectural elements analyzed in both schools to demonstrate relation between site, interior space, functionality and environmental response, based on using their modern material and character. The paper concluded that the educational buildings hold strong elements of the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa and demonstrate how the elements of modernism were involved functionally in the design. The findings contribute useful evidence about the existence of modernism philosophy in architecture in Lefkoşa in the first half of twentieth century. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3653 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Lefkoşais considered as a modern city because it was affected with European architecture in first of 20th century. Many modern buildings are built in Lefkoşain that time. Over time modernist architecture replace with other styles in architecture and modernist elements changed or became meaningless because of another adding elements. Governmental buildings were less affected with these deformations and the modernist architecture appears more than another buildings. Schools are crucial buildings of a society and indicator of its development. Schools as a building with special character were always one of the most momentous projects for architectural thinking because of their multi functions and elements. The aim of this paper is to explore the modernism movement influence on Educational governmental buildings. The paper tries to evaluate the effects of the modern elements for school buildings design on first half of 20th century. Functionality will be second factor to evaluate the effects of modernism. Many buildings represent modernism inLefkoşabut over time they lost their character as a modern building or they change with another style. The research assigned few questions to be answered. How much Modernist Architecture elements presence in Modernist feature of Educational Buildings in Lefkoşa? How much Modernist Elements are functional today? The paper hypothesizes that if the educational buildings from beginning of twentieth century until today have the elements of modern architecture, then that shows the presence of modernism philosophy in architecture in the city since that period. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Modern Architecture History The term ‘Modern’ demonstrates combination of functionalism and aesthetic through movements in twentieth century which deny traditional and historical ruling on that period (Robinson, 2003). In the first half of 19th century while, modernism applied in the art and literature, start to refuse religion and history in Enlightenment period. In Europe, one of the most important perspectives of modern movement was criticism of the tradition and religion. In fact, the idea of modernism finds out in renaissance, but become more popular in Enlightenment era. Scientific look forward for future instead of past to improve the society and their life, as a result churches lost their place in society (Zabihi, 2010).The modern movement had begun in the early twentieth century by political, social, aesthetical and technological revolution in design and creates artistic and architectural movement to look ahead to future without participate historical background. The modern design focuses on functionality and interior space of the building more than decoration.In the beginning of 20th century, modern architecture continued by technical revolution which was the product of modern movement. Development of engineering field, using the materials and construction techniques, open a new way for architects in the world. New material such as steel, reinforced concrete, glass and aluminum enter to the new era of design (Evans and Jeffery, 2005). 2.1.1 The Pioneer Architects of Modern Movement in the world Modernism is the most important movement of the 20th century, in architecture related to function of building and using new materials. It has been called as international modern after Philip Johnson’s modernist architecture exhibition in 1932 in America. The modernism is determining by; building always introduced by cubic or cylinder shapes with flat roofs, using reinforced concrete in the facade with white or cream color without any ornamentation, as well as steel and glass sheet are used in the building with horizontal large windows and open interior plans. The two pioneer of modern movement in architecture design were Walter Gropius in 1883-1969 and Le Corbusier in1887-1965.(Savio, 2006). Le Corbusier was one of the Pioneers of the modern movement in 1920’s and one of the most famous architects in the history of modern movement. His effects on the architecture as well as on the art continues until today in the world. Chandigarh is one of the remarkable experiences of urban planning in 20th century.

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The Presence of Modernist Architecture in Government’s educational Buildings at Lefkoşa *Ph.D. CandidateMARYAM IRANFAR Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, BharatiVydiapeeth University, Pune, Maharashtra- India E mail: maryam.iranfar32@gmail.com A B S T R A C T Modernist architecture movement of the buildings in any city reflects the modernity of that city. Lefkoşa as a modern city faced many conflicts in the last century. The governmental buildings illustrate how modernism in architecture was defined and reflected in the buildings of the city. The aim of this paper is to explore the modernism movement in architecture influence on educational governmental buildings in Lefkoşa for first half in 20th century. The paper focuses on the ideas and experiences of modernist architects in first half of 20th century to apply modernism elements, and relationship between architecture form and functionalism in governmental buildings. Methodology frame work elucidated to conduct the subject. Two School buildings have been selected from the first half of twentieth century in Lefkoşa as case studies for modernist architecture. ‘Lefkoşatürklisesi’ designed by ‘Ahmet vuralBahaedden’, which was the one of famous modernist architects in Cyprus and ‘ŞehitErtuğrulIlkokulu’. The buildings architectural elements analyzed in both schools to demonstrate relation between site, interior space, functionality and environmental response, based on using their modern material and character. The paper concluded that the educational buildings hold strong elements of the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa and demonstrate how the elements of modernism were involved functionally in the design. The findings contribute useful evidence about the existence of modernism philosophy in architecture in Lefkoşa in the first half of twentieth century. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(1), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3653 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Lefkoşais considered as a modern city because it was affected with European architecture in first of 20th century. Many modern buildings are built in Lefkoşain that time. Over time modernist architecture replace with other styles in architecture and modernist elements changed or became meaningless because of another adding elements. Governmental buildings were less affected with these deformations and the modernist architecture appears more than another buildings. Schools are crucial buildings of a society and indicator of its development. Schools as a building with special character were always one of the most momentous projects for architectural thinking because of their multi functions and elements. The aim of this paper is to explore the modernism movement influence on Educational governmental buildings. The paper tries to evaluate the effects of the modern elements for school buildings design on first half of 20th century. Functionality will be second factor to evaluate the effects of modernism. Many buildings represent modernism inLefkoşabut over time they lost their character as a modern building or they change with another style. The research assigned few questions to be answered. How much Modernist Architecture elements presence in Modernist feature of Educational Buildings in Lefkoşa? How much Modernist Elements are functional today? The paper hypothesizes that if the educational buildings from beginning of twentieth century until today have the elements of modern architecture, then that shows the presence of modernism philosophy in architecture in the city since that period. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Modern Architecture History The term ‘Modern’ demonstrates combination of functionalism and aesthetic through movements in twentieth century which deny traditional and historical ruling on that period (Robinson, 2003). In the first half of 19th century while, modernism applied in the art and literature, start to refuse religion and history in Enlightenment period. In Europe, one of the most important perspectives of modern movement was criticism of the tradition and religion. In fact, the idea of modernism finds out in renaissance, but become more popular in Enlightenment era. Scientific look forward for future instead of past to improve the society and their life, as a result churches lost their place in society (Zabihi, 2010).The modern movement had begun in the early twentieth century by political, social, aesthetical and technological revolution in design and creates artistic and architectural movement to look ahead to future without participate historical background. The modern design focuses on functionality and interior space of the building more than decoration.In the beginning of 20th century, modern architecture continued by technical revolution which was the product of modern movement. Development of engineering field, using the materials and construction techniques, open a new way for architects in the world. New material such as steel, reinforced concrete, glass and aluminum enter to the new era of design (Evans and Jeffery, 2005). 2.1.1 The Pioneer Architects of Modern Movement in the world Modernism is the most important movement of the 20th century, in architecture related to function of building and using new materials. It has been called as international modern after Philip Johnson’s modernist architecture exhibition in 1932 in America. The modernism is determining by; building always introduced by cubic or cylinder shapes with flat roofs, using reinforced concrete in the facade with white or cream color without any ornamentation, as well as steel and glass sheet are used in the building with horizontal large windows and open interior plans. The two pioneer of modern movement in architecture design were Walter Gropius in 1883-1969 and Le Corbusier in1887-1965.(Savio, 2006). Le Corbusier was one of the Pioneers of the modern movement in 1920’s and one of the most famous architects in the history of modern movement. His effects on the architecture as well as on the art continues until today in the world. Chandigarh is one of the remarkable experiences of urban planning in 20th century.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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This page is a summary of: The Presence of Modernist Architecture in Government’s educational Buildings at Lefkoşa, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, July 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3653.
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