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A B S T R A C T Aesthetics is the philosophical study of art and natural beauty and it is indicated by the feelings of pleasure or displeasure which comes from visual and aural elements and artifacts. Hence, aesthetics depends on animate or inanimate organization which can be perceived either subjectively or objectively. This aesthetic element is uniquely present in the traditional buildings and modern buildings of southwestern part of Nigeria. This study is set out to evaluate and bring into lime light the aesthetic characteristics of traditional buildings and that of the modern buildings, how one style or aesthetic element gradually prevail over or transform to another, reasons and consequences of one completely predominating another in Yoruba region of Nigeria. Moreover, this study therefore, is divided into four parts, which are: (a) overview of the history of modern and traditional Architecture of Yoruba land (b) aesthetic characteristics or indicators of traditional and modern architecture in Yoruba land, (c) the differences between the aesthetic of both style of Architecture and what is responsible for this change or transformation in their aesthetic value. The research concludes with recommendations of synchronizing both style of architecture design in getting an optimum aesthetic value, and offers a room for further research and development of a consistent and notable architectural typology for southwest Nigeria.

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The Transformation of Aesthetics in Architecture from Traditional to Modern Architecture: A case study of the Yoruba (southwestern) region of Nigeria *MA. Femi Emmanuel Arenibafo Architectural technology ‎department, school of Environmental studies, Yaba college of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria A B S T R A C T Aesthetics is the philosophical study of art and natural beauty and it is indicated by the feelings of pleasure or displeasure which comes from visual and aural elements and artifacts. Hence, aesthetics depends on animate or inanimate organization which can be perceived either subjectively or objectively. This aesthetic element is uniquely present in the traditional buildings and modern buildings of southwestern part of Nigeria. This study is set out to evaluate and bring into lime light the aesthetic characteristics of traditional buildings and that of the modern buildings, how one style or aesthetic element gradually prevail over or transform to another, reasons and consequences of one completely predominating another in Yoruba region of Nigeria. Moreover, this study therefore, is divided into four parts, which are: (a) overview of the history of modern and traditional Architecture of Yoruba land (b) aesthetic characteristics or indicators of traditional and modern architecture in Yoruba land, (c) the differences between the aesthetic of both style of Architecture and what is responsible for this change or transformation in their aesthetic value. The research concludes with recommendations of synchronizing both style of architecture design in getting an optimum aesthetic value, and offers a room for further research and development of a consistent and notable architectural typology for southwest Nigeria. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)35-44 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Architecture and indeed, the building, is referred to and thus described as an embodiment of the cultural heritage of people (Rapaport, 1969; Kalilu, 1997). Culture is dynamic, architecture as a cultural phenomenon changes as culture does. Nigeria architecture in general has been very dynamic due to the social, cultural, economic, technological advancement and political changes which has a significant effect on the aesthetic output of the building styles. Fortunately, an inevitable transformation occurs which negate a consistent representation of the cultural heritage of southwestern Nigeria. This transformation is that of the aesthetic elements in traditional buildings to aesthetic elements in modern building with little or no connection between both styles. Furthermore, to be able to fully point out and understand how this aesthetic transformation came about and it effects, this study therefore, will aim at gathering in depth understanding on what both styles of Architecture encompasses in the context of southwestern part Nigeria, bringing to surface the aesthetic characteristics of both styles. Moreover, this study will elaborate the aesthetic effect when both styles of architecture are synchronized in any Architectural piece to give optimum aesthetic value. Granted, Aesthetic achievement has been the sole or chief end in any form of Architectural style. An architectural edifice must give delight and perceived beauty continuously regardless of it age. Therefore, in a significant way, the study will definitely enlighten the academic world, the design continent and the general audience on the Aesthetic movement or it transformation process from traditional architecture to modern architecture as far as the southwestern region of Nigeria is concern. The in-depth study will help address what is at stake in completely ghosting our historical heritages due to unmonitored proliferation of modernity through international influence. To practically and concisely achieve the aforementioned aims, this research focused on the architecture of southwestern part of Nigeria. A documented comparison between the traditional architecture prior to 18th century through to modern architecture in the eve of 20th century in Yoruba land. Southwestern states in which the study was carried out are: Lagos, Ibadan, Osun, Ondo and Ogun. This study closely examines the aesthetic characteristics of both residential and commercial buildings in this zone over the above stated period; determining the aesthetic perception of individual on some selected buildings. 2. Aesthetics and Architecture Aesthetics as applied to architecture is a reference to a particular style or design element that makes any form of architectural edifice appealing and pleasant. Moreover, aesthetic is based on taste and judgment of human sensory feelings. And speaking of judgment, aesthetic judgment is greatly influenced by what the environment represent to us. In other word, the emotional associations that develop by certain design elements, attributes and order of arrangements can be a good source of aesthetic pleasure. Form, colour, materials, shape, lightings and spatial configuration all have significant meaning in aesthetic judgment. These meanings may have a historical affiliation to an individual or may represent a shared association of a cultural group. For example, a culture that uses a motif roof, wood or any other natural material through many areas of design and function can be said to appreciate or adhere to a specific aesthetic Architecture in the context of aesthetic is the act of exhibiting concept of things that are possible through art and design, things whose form has a chosen purpose (functionality), and of doing so in other to achieve that aim, yet have aesthetics purposiveness (Edwin, 2007). In architecture, the main concerns in connection with Aesthetics as stated by vitrivius (15bc); His definition of good architecture depends on three criteria as vestas (beauty), utilitas (utility) and firmitas (firmness). Recently, these aspects of architecture were interpreted as form, function and construction. In this regard, Vitruvius claim that the features that indicate or makes an Architectural piece to be perceived or characterized as an Aesthetic design are: a) Beauty (it exterior form) b) Functionality/utility c) Firmness/Construction d) Unity a) Beauty Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics. It is the property, the quality or state of being perceived as pleasurable, pleasing, and attractive to an individual which is subjective to one’s ways of seeing and partly depend objectively on what is been seen.

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The Transformation of Aesthetics in Architecture from Traditional to Modern Architecture: A case study of the Yoruba (southwestern) region of Nigeria *MA. Femi Emmanuel Arenibafo Architectural technology ‎department, school of Environmental studies, Yaba college of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria A B S T R A C T Aesthetics is the philosophical study of art and natural beauty and it is indicated by the feelings of pleasure or displeasure which comes from visual and aural elements and artifacts. Hence, aesthetics depends on animate or inanimate organization which can be perceived either subjectively or objectively. This aesthetic element is uniquely present in the traditional buildings and modern buildings of southwestern part of Nigeria. This study is set out to evaluate and bring into lime light the aesthetic characteristics of traditional buildings and that of the modern buildings, how one style or aesthetic element gradually prevail over or transform to another, reasons and consequences of one completely predominating another in Yoruba region of Nigeria. Moreover, this study therefore, is divided into four parts, which are: (a) overview of the history of modern and traditional Architecture of Yoruba land (b) aesthetic characteristics or indicators of traditional and modern architecture in Yoruba land, (c) the differences between the aesthetic of both style of Architecture and what is responsible for this change or transformation in their aesthetic value. The research concludes with recommendations of synchronizing both style of architecture design in getting an optimum aesthetic value, and offers a room for further research and development of a consistent and notable architectural typology for southwest Nigeria. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)35-44 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Architecture and indeed, the building, is referred to and thus described as an embodiment of the cultural heritage of people (Rapaport, 1969; Kalilu, 1997). Culture is dynamic, architecture as a cultural phenomenon changes as culture does. Nigeria architecture in general has been very dynamic due to the social, cultural, economic, technological advancement and political changes which has a significant effect on the aesthetic output of the building styles. Fortunately, an inevitable transformation occurs which negate a consistent representation of the cultural heritage of southwestern Nigeria. This transformation is that of the aesthetic elements in traditional buildings to aesthetic elements in modern building with little or no connection between both styles. Furthermore, to be able to fully point out and understand how this aesthetic transformation came about and it effects, this study therefore, will aim at gathering in depth understanding on what both styles of Architecture encompasses in the context of southwestern part Nigeria, bringing to surface the aesthetic characteristics of both styles. Moreover, this study will elaborate the aesthetic effect when both styles of architecture are synchronized in any Architectural piece to give optimum aesthetic value. Granted, Aesthetic achievement has been the sole or chief end in any form of Architectural style. An architectural edifice must give delight and perceived beauty continuously regardless of it age. Therefore, in a significant way, the study will definitely enlighten the academic world, the design continent and the general audience on the Aesthetic movement or it transformation process from traditional architecture to modern architecture as far as the southwestern region of Nigeria is concern. The in-depth study will help address what is at stake in completely ghosting our historical heritages due to unmonitored proliferation of modernity through international influence. To practically and concisely achieve the aforementioned aims, this research focused on the architecture of southwestern part of Nigeria. A documented comparison between the traditional architecture prior to 18th century through to modern architecture in the eve of 20th century in Yoruba land. Southwestern states in which the study was carried out are: Lagos, Ibadan, Osun, Ondo and Ogun. This study closely examines the aesthetic characteristics of both residential and commercial buildings in this zone over the above stated period; determining the aesthetic perception of individual on some selected buildings. 2. Aesthetics and Architecture Aesthetics as applied to architecture is a reference to a particular style or design element that makes any form of architectural edifice appealing and pleasant. Moreover, aesthetic is based on taste and judgment of human sensory feelings. And speaking of judgment, aesthetic judgment is greatly influenced by what the environment represent to us. In other word, the emotional associations that develop by certain design elements, attributes and order of arrangements can be a good source of aesthetic pleasure. Form, colour, materials, shape, lightings and spatial configuration all have significant meaning in aesthetic judgment. These meanings may have a historical affiliation to an individual or may represent a shared association of a cultural group. For example, a culture that uses a motif roof, wood or any other natural material through many areas of design and function can be said to appreciate or adhere to a specific aesthetic Architecture in the context of aesthetic is the act of exhibiting concept of things that are possible through art and design, things whose form has a chosen purpose (functionality), and of doing so in other to achieve that aim, yet have aesthetics purposiveness (Edwin, 2007). In architecture, the main concerns in connection with Aesthetics as stated by vitrivius (15bc); His definition of good architecture depends on three criteria as vestas (beauty), utilitas (utility) and firmitas (firmness). Recently, these aspects of architecture were interpreted as form, function and construction. In this regard, Vitruvius claim that the features that indicate or makes an Architectural piece to be perceived or characterized as an Aesthetic design are: a) Beauty (it exterior form) b) Functionality/utility c) Firmness/Construction d) Unity a) Beauty Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics. It is the property, the quality or state of being perceived as pleasurable, pleasing, and attractive to an individual which is subjective to one’s ways of seeing and partly depend objectively on what is been seen.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: The Transformation of Aesthetics in Architecture from Traditional to Modern Architecture: A case study of the Yoruba (southwestern) region of Nigeria, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, January 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/1761.1(1)35-44.
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