What is it about?

A B S T R A C T Industrial buildings as an example of cultural heritage transforms our cultural identity from past to the present and even for the future. Unfortunately, there are lots of industrial building which lost its function by converting the place to live and identifiable place. This research will clarify the reasons of conserving of the industrial heritage and by classification of international charters which are dealing with industrial heritage will introduce conservation methods for adaptive reuse of industrial buildings. As a case study, the research will focus on Energy Museum in Istanbul. To assess the building based on reusing principals. The study concludes that Energy Museum is one of the successful examples of reuse of the building. It also concludes that less intervention in reusing a building can save the identity of the building.

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Adaptive Reuse of the Industrial Building: A case of Energy Museum in Sanatistanbul, Turkey MA.Najmaldin Hussein Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey A B S T R A C T Industrial buildings as an example of cultural heritage transforms our cultural identity from past to the present and even for the future. Unfortunately, there are lots of industrial building which lost its function by converting the place to live and identifiable place. This research will clarify the reasons of conserving of the industrial heritage and by classification of international charters which are dealing with industrial heritage will introduce conservation methods for adaptive reuse of industrial buildings. As a case study, the research will focus on Energy Museum in Istanbul. To assess the building based on reusing principals. The study concludes that Energy Museum is one of the successful examples of reuse of the building. It also concludes that less intervention in reusing a building can save the identity of the building. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 24-34. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)24-34 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction 1.1. A History of the concept of Industrial Heritage The idea of Industrial Heritage (IH) hosted for a first time in England in the middle of the 12th century, when several landscapes and industrial buildings were demolished (Kuhl, 2004). Then the idea of “heritage” traversed from the borders of the industrialized districts, by affecting from the past which is quite prominent to the present (Choay, 1992). From that time till contemporary era, there were many efforts and conferences to describe what it needs to do with conservation of industrial heritage. Considering Nizhny Tagil (NT) Charter “the industrial heritage consists of the remains of industrial culture which are of historical, technological, social, architectural or scientific value” (TICCIH, 2003). According to Burley and Loures (2008) architectural heritage and landscape heritage are the center of social, cultural, unique spiritual values. In the past, there was different understanding in each generation it also derives new stimulation from it to build a capital in social contribution through the centuries (ECH, 1975). Selfslagh (2002) states that it is impossible to rebuild or renew the cultural heritage. The reason for that is no way to rebuild cultural heritages which already destroyed. Therefore, industrial heritage which is part of cultural heritage needs specific consideration to preserve by transforming its authenticity to our future generation. Cultural heritage as part of our past history, which belongs to our ancestors should be preserved. Industrial heritage which doesn't work anymore needs to preserve to get benefits from Initial capitalfor different purpose of social and capital activities. In this regard conservation of industrial heritage will be the best method to preserve in order to give sprite to the context. 2. Conservation of Industrial Heritage (CIH) The idea of CIH started from 1950th century and introduced by Michael Rix (1955). Also the same discussion previously clarified in the 18th century with the concept of conservation on the architecture of the building production and equipment. In this regard, in Britain in 1973 there were first congers of CIH and also conservation of an industrial monument to evaluate and develop the historic culture and value of industrial heritage (Trinder, 1992). Consequently, the researchers from non-governmental organization established to focus on this subject. Right after Iron bridge congress (meeting) The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage which is known as TICCIH was founded. The international associations such as UNESCO and ICOMOS also established with the aim of conservation and specially by focusing of CIH. ICOMOS in his description of industrial heritage mentioned to social, cultural and technical values of industrial heritage considered as a complimentary part of collective memory for this reason it’s needed to preserve. The main aim of establishment of TICCIH was also to conserve industrial heritage (IH) TICCIH was recognized in 1974 for preservation of artefacts and industrial heritage and artefacts by studying its educational, historical, scientific, and cultural values. Later, from 1970th the term IH have been used in Eastern European Countries. The term has been used in France with the title of Heritage. In Holland in the period of 1986 the collection center for international industrial was established. “The organizations regulations and the investigations were constituted in Scandinavian Countries” (Şimsek, 2006). Considering the definition of IH in The Charter of Nizhny Tagil it refers to the conservation of objects and buildings as well as social services and production facilities (Nizhny Tagil Charter for the Industrial Heritage, 2003). In this regard, by considering intangible and tangible values in cultural heritage how to preserve and what we should preserve are the important questions which needed to be discussed. According to the Charter of Venice (1964) “It is vital that the principles guiding the preservation and restoration of ancient buildings should be agreed and be laid down on an international basis, with each country being responsible for applying the plan within the framework of its own culture and traditions.” In the conservation, industrial heritage the idea isn't also referring to objective adjustment and organization of places, but it also refers to idea of contribution of conservation by enhancing the sense of place. After the introducing of the term “Sustainable development” the idea of conservation of industrial heritage developed to use the social, cultural, economical benefits of a site. Demolished cultural heritage might increase the rate of crime, it also creates lost space which people might lose social connection and vitality of space in that area. According to the above discussion, it seems that the conservation of industrial heritage is mandatory which is parallel with the aim and objectives of sustainable development. In this regard, reuse of industrial heritage might be parallel to the aim of conservation. Following paragraph will describe the term reuse as a method for conservation of industrial heritage. 3. Adaptive Reuse as a part of conservation of Historic Buildings (HB) Reuse of an industrial heritage in to new function will help to reduce sprawl reduction and land conservation. Turker (2013) believes that “reuse of HB will effect directly to community growth, their histories and leading to a minimal impact on the environment” (Turker, 2013). According to the literature studied in this research reusing of HB can be considered as a one of the best methods in preservation and conservation of HB in each and every context. According to Cascal (2007) after the process of reuse in HB, it will get the new sprit rather than demolishing or being left to decades. During the process of reuse for HB to completely new function, the process of renovation will add new layers to the history of the building. But according to Bullen et al., (2006) it’s necessary mention that in the process of adding new functionality or layers to the HB the initial layers as an identity and history of the building should be preserved. It will also help to HB to keep its previous identity which belongs to certain period and time. Therefore, after reusing HB the sense of historical building still needs to be filled in reused building. Consequently, according to Shipley (2006) reuse of HB is the most inventive and remarkable action which could be given to an old decaying HB. “The conservation process should maintain the cultural significance of a HB and interferences should be combined with the whole while, retaining its integrity and character” (Hurol et al., 2015). Intervention in reusing the building for the new unction will need different methods by considering the environmental context of HB. In this regard the new intervention and facilities to HB should adopt slightly juxtapose with the identity and character of HB. According to Orbasli (2009) if the reused functional effect the identity of the building or completely changed the identity and character of HB we can say that the reuse is not appropriated. Figure 1 which developed base on City of Petersburg City code (2007) reveals that reusing industrial building are appropriate with any kind of functions without residential. Since the scale of an industrial building is bigger that residential building it will create many problems in the context which completely will change the identity of HB. Figure 1. Chart of Reuse (City of Petersburg, City code, 2007). According to Armesto González (2006) in order to reuse HB it needs suitable assessment of its context and situation of it in order to introduce a method of conservation to plan for its exploitation and recuperation. In his research Fuentes (2010) proposed a method to reuse HB. He developed his method in six successive steps. The method which he developed is universal and could be applicable to different types of HB e.g. industrial, social, and residential and etc. Figure 2 illustrates the six main steps of assessing and documenting of HB.

Perspectives

Adaptive Reuse of the Industrial Building: A case of Energy Museum in Sanatistanbul, Turkey MA.Najmaldin Hussein Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey A B S T R A C T Industrial buildings as an example of cultural heritage transforms our cultural identity from past to the present and even for the future. Unfortunately, there are lots of industrial building which lost its function by converting the place to live and identifiable place. This research will clarify the reasons of conserving of the industrial heritage and by classification of international charters which are dealing with industrial heritage will introduce conservation methods for adaptive reuse of industrial buildings. As a case study, the research will focus on Energy Museum in Istanbul. To assess the building based on reusing principals. The study concludes that Energy Museum is one of the successful examples of reuse of the building. It also concludes that less intervention in reusing a building can save the identity of the building. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 24-34. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)24-34 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction 1.1. A History of the concept of Industrial Heritage The idea of Industrial Heritage (IH) hosted for a first time in England in the middle of the 12th century, when several landscapes and industrial buildings were demolished (Kuhl, 2004). Then the idea of “heritage” traversed from the borders of the industrialized districts, by affecting from the past which is quite prominent to the present (Choay, 1992). From that time till contemporary era, there were many efforts and conferences to describe what it needs to do with conservation of industrial heritage. Considering Nizhny Tagil (NT) Charter “the industrial heritage consists of the remains of industrial culture which are of historical, technological, social, architectural or scientific value” (TICCIH, 2003). According to Burley and Loures (2008) architectural heritage and landscape heritage are the center of social, cultural, unique spiritual values. In the past, there was different understanding in each generation it also derives new stimulation from it to build a capital in social contribution through the centuries (ECH, 1975). Selfslagh (2002) states that it is impossible to rebuild or renew the cultural heritage. The reason for that is no way to rebuild cultural heritages which already destroyed. Therefore, industrial heritage which is part of cultural heritage needs specific consideration to preserve by transforming its authenticity to our future generation. Cultural heritage as part of our past history, which belongs to our ancestors should be preserved. Industrial heritage which doesn't work anymore needs to preserve to get benefits from Initial capitalfor different purpose of social and capital activities. In this regard conservation of industrial heritage will be the best method to preserve in order to give sprite to the context. 2. Conservation of Industrial Heritage (CIH) The idea of CIH started from 1950th century and introduced by Michael Rix (1955). Also the same discussion previously clarified in the 18th century with the concept of conservation on the architecture of the building production and equipment. In this regard, in Britain in 1973 there were first congers of CIH and also conservation of an industrial monument to evaluate and develop the historic culture and value of industrial heritage (Trinder, 1992). Consequently, the researchers from non-governmental organization established to focus on this subject. Right after Iron bridge congress (meeting) The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage which is known as TICCIH was founded. The international associations such as UNESCO and ICOMOS also established with the aim of conservation and specially by focusing of CIH. ICOMOS in his description of industrial heritage mentioned to social, cultural and technical values of industrial heritage considered as a complimentary part of collective memory for this reason it’s needed to preserve. The main aim of establishment of TICCIH was also to conserve industrial heritage (IH) TICCIH was recognized in 1974 for preservation of artefacts and industrial heritage and artefacts by studying its educational, historical, scientific, and cultural values. Later, from 1970th the term IH have been used in Eastern European Countries. The term has been used in France with the title of Heritage. In Holland in the period of 1986 the collection center for international industrial was established. “The organizations regulations and the investigations were constituted in Scandinavian Countries” (Şimsek, 2006). Considering the definition of IH in The Charter of Nizhny Tagil it refers to the conservation of objects and buildings as well as social services and production facilities (Nizhny Tagil Charter for the Industrial Heritage, 2003). In this regard, by considering intangible and tangible values in cultural heritage how to preserve and what we should preserve are the important questions which needed to be discussed. According to the Charter of Venice (1964) “It is vital that the principles guiding the preservation and restoration of ancient buildings should be agreed and be laid down on an international basis, with each country being responsible for applying the plan within the framework of its own culture and traditions.” In the conservation, industrial heritage the idea isn't also referring to objective adjustment and organization of places, but it also refers to idea of contribution of conservation by enhancing the sense of place. After the introducing of the term “Sustainable development” the idea of conservation of industrial heritage developed to use the social, cultural, economical benefits of a site. Demolished cultural heritage might increase the rate of crime, it also creates lost space which people might lose social connection and vitality of space in that area. According to the above discussion, it seems that the conservation of industrial heritage is mandatory which is parallel with the aim and objectives of sustainable development. In this regard, reuse of industrial heritage might be parallel to the aim of conservation. Following paragraph will describe the term reuse as a method for conservation of industrial heritage. 3. Adaptive Reuse as a part of conservation of Historic Buildings (HB) Reuse of an industrial heritage in to new function will help to reduce sprawl reduction and land conservation. Turker (2013) believes that “reuse of HB will effect directly to community growth, their histories and leading to a minimal impact on the environment” (Turker, 2013). According to the literature studied in this research reusing of HB can be considered as a one of the best methods in preservation and conservation of HB in each and every context. According to Cascal (2007) after the process of reuse in HB, it will get the new sprit rather than demolishing or being left to decades. During the process of reuse for HB to completely new function, the process of renovation will add new layers to the history of the building. But according to Bullen et al., (2006) it’s necessary mention that in the process of adding new functionality or layers to the HB the initial layers as an identity and history of the building should be preserved. It will also help to HB to keep its previous identity which belongs to certain period and time. Therefore, after reusing HB the sense of historical building still needs to be filled in reused building. Consequently, according to Shipley (2006) reuse of HB is the most inventive and remarkable action which could be given to an old decaying HB. “The conservation process should maintain the cultural significance of a HB and interferences should be combined with the whole while, retaining its integrity and character” (Hurol et al., 2015). Intervention in reusing the building for the new unction will need different methods by considering the environmental context of HB. In this regard the new intervention and facilities to HB should adopt slightly juxtapose with the identity and character of HB. According to Orbasli (2009) if the reused functional effect the identity of the building or completely changed the identity and character of HB we can say that the reuse is not appropriated. Figure 1 which developed base on City of Petersburg City code (2007) reveals that reusing industrial building are appropriate with any kind of functions without residential. Since the scale of an industrial building is bigger that residential building it will create many problems in the context which completely will change the identity of HB. Figure 1. Chart of Reuse (City of Petersburg, City code, 2007). According to Armesto González (2006) in order to reuse HB it needs suitable assessment of its context and situation of it in order to introduce a method of conservation to plan for its exploitation and recuperation. In his research Fuentes (2010) proposed a method to reuse HB. He developed his method in six successive steps. The method which he developed is universal and could be applicable to different types of HB e.g. industrial, social, and residential and etc. Figure 2 illustrates the six main steps of assessing and documenting of HB.

Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
Girne American University

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This page is a summary of: Adaptive Reuse of the Industrial Building: A case of Energy Museum in Sanatistanbul, Turkey, January 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/1761.1(1)24-34.
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