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A B S T R A C T The twentieth century modern architectures in Lefkosia in North Cyprus are changing especially in residential building. This change is occurs based on the client’s orders or because of the dilapidated condition of the buildings. Identify the characteristics of modernist architectural movement will help in identifying these buildings and recognize the changes applied on them. The paper aims to reach the rationale understanding about the norms of modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the twentieth century. The methodology is based on analyzing the residential buildings designed by local architects and “Ahmet VuralBahaeddin” selected as one of the famous modernist architect in the twentieth century in North Cyprus. Residential buildings from Milan and Rome in Italy, as well as Baecelina in Spain selected for analysis. The paper tries to demonstrate the presence of vernacular elements in modern architecture in Lefkoşa. Two vernacular elements were studied, i) the patio (outside and inside interrelation), and ii) the façade materials (exposed stone) as vernacular elements in “Mediterranean modernist architecture”. The paper delineated the influence of the “Mediterranean modernist movement” on modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the 20th century. The findings show that there is influence by Modernist movement of architecture in other Mediterranean cities in Italy and Espain on the modern architecture in Lefkoşa. The results contribute evidence to promote our understanding regarding the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa.

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The influence of Mediterranean modernist movement of architecture in Lefkoşa: The first and early second half of 20th century Ph.D. CandidateSalar Salah Muhy Al-Din * Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, BharatiVydiapeeth University, Pune, Maharashtra- India E mail: salars.muhyaldin@yahoo.com A B S T R A C T The twentieth century modern architectures in Lefkosia in North Cyprus are changing especially in residential building. This change is occurs based on the client’s orders or because of the dilapidated condition of the buildings. Identify the characteristics of modernist architectural movement will help in identifying these buildings and recognize the changes applied on them. The paper aims to reach the rationale understanding about the norms of modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the twentieth century. The methodology is based on analyzing the residential buildings designed by local architects and “Ahmet VuralBahaeddin” selected as one of the famous modernist architect in the twentieth century in North Cyprus. Residential buildings from Milan and Rome in Italy, as well as Baecelina in Spain selected for analysis. The paper tries to demonstrate the presence of vernacular elements in modern architecture in Lefkoşa. Two vernacular elements were studied, i) the patio (outside and inside interrelation), and ii) the façade materials (exposed stone) as vernacular elements in “Mediterranean modernist architecture”. The paper delineated the influence of the “Mediterranean modernist movement” on modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the 20th century. The findings show that there is influence by Modernist movement of architecture in other Mediterranean cities in Italy and Espain on the modern architecture in Lefkoşa. The results contribute evidence to promote our understanding regarding the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 10-23. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)10-23 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction “Mediterranean Modernism movement” in architecture was one of the dialects between the presumed universalism of modernist architecture and the privacies of distinct places. It considered the vernacular building traditions of the Mediterranean region as a source for modernism in architecture in this region. This notion crystallized after the discourses between north and south of Europe about the modernism in architecture in the beginning of the last century (Lejeune, and Sabatino, 2010). The differences in opinions that had developed during the 1920s between the architects of the North and the South of Europe toward the role of technology and tradition continued to define postwar production. “Mediterranean modernist movement” in architecture came out as modernist architectural philosophy in south of Europe. Vernacular architecture started to be discussed as a source of modernism in the “Mediterranean modernism philosophy”. For example James Stirling’s mentioned in his essay on Regionalism and Modern Architecture (1957) that: “The most visually stimulating chapters of Kidder Smith’s recent book Italy Builds were not those on Italian Modern and Italian Renaissance, but that on the anonymous architecture of Italy”(Sabatino, 2010). Hence, Vernacular elements considered as the primary sources of modern architecture in the southern Mediterranean. The influence of this philosophy could be observed in modern residential buildings in the first and early second half of 20th century in Lefkoşa, in North Cyprus. The designs have been held some vernacular elements in the modern buildings specially the stone facades and in the interrelation between inside and outside of the buildings (Patio). The paper tries to answer following questions; whether or not the Cypriot modernist architecture was influenced by “Mediterranean modernism philosophy” in first half of 20th century? Whether or not, other external factors affected the modernism in the architectural design of residential buildings in that period? The paper aims to define the character of modern architecture houses between first and second half of 20th century in Lefkoşa. The study tries to demonstrate the similarity between AhmetVuralBahaedden’s design as North Cypriot pioneer in modern architecture and other Italian and Spanish design in the same periods. The paper hypothesize that if the “Mediterranean modernism” were influencing the architectural style in Lefkoşa after the first half of 20th century, then the introduction of vernacular elements in the residential buildings designed by ‘Ahmet VuralBahaeddin’ is partially or totally result of that influence. 2. Literature review 2.1. Modernist movement of Architecture With the end of nineteenth century and the beginning of twentieth century, because of Modern Movement in the societies of west Europe, architects started to leave past styles and began to work on a new form of architecture(Evans and Jeffery, 2005). Modernism in architecture focuses on Sullivan’s saying that “form follows function”, based on functional concerns. In this study the modern movements of architecture will be delineated to the first half of twentieth century. The first decade or so after the ‘World War I’ was a crucial and innovative time for architecture. The new movement became international after World War I, where consist the development of simple geometric figures and simple facades free from ornaments released from any historical references. Buildings were to be “machines for living,” reflecting the industrial revolution age (Le Corbusier, 1931).Consequently, Modernist movement in architecture had been crystallized as real movement. The best known of this movement were, between many, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier in France, and Mies Van der Rohe in Germany. Gropius was the founders of the ‘Bauhaus’ (1919-1933) were established in Dessau focused on philosophy of modernism in architecture (Magdalena, 2002). Gropius in ‘Bauhaus’ wanted to show a new consideration for technique and craft in all artistic world, and asked for re-assessment for art and craft characteristic of the medieval age, before art and manufacturing had diverted away. The Bauhaus was considering rationalization in design as well (Evans, and Jeffery, 2005). After World War II, this movement became more present in plain facade of high rise buildings with curtain walls in large houses. 2.1.1. General characteristic of Modernism in Architecture Le Corbusier, one of Modern Architecture’s pioneers in 1926 pointed his five points for new Architecture. One of the points was "free plan”, which focus on continuity, transparency of place. This point is one of the important points for theory of Modern Architecture. He pointed "free façade" as complementary to free plan and took in consideration interaction between interior and exterior, and their relation to nature as well. Those two points were very crucial in new idea of architecture. The other three points of new architecture, which Le Corbusier described, were: the "pilotis" which means the columns in French language, where allowing the garden to creep under the building and "the horizontal window “and "the roof garden" (Benton, 2007).

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The influence of Mediterranean modernist movement of architecture in Lefkoşa: The first and early second half of 20th century Ph.D. CandidateSalar Salah Muhy Al-Din * Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, BharatiVydiapeeth University, Pune, Maharashtra- India E mail: salars.muhyaldin@yahoo.com A B S T R A C T The twentieth century modern architectures in Lefkosia in North Cyprus are changing especially in residential building. This change is occurs based on the client’s orders or because of the dilapidated condition of the buildings. Identify the characteristics of modernist architectural movement will help in identifying these buildings and recognize the changes applied on them. The paper aims to reach the rationale understanding about the norms of modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the twentieth century. The methodology is based on analyzing the residential buildings designed by local architects and “Ahmet VuralBahaeddin” selected as one of the famous modernist architect in the twentieth century in North Cyprus. Residential buildings from Milan and Rome in Italy, as well as Baecelina in Spain selected for analysis. The paper tries to demonstrate the presence of vernacular elements in modern architecture in Lefkoşa. Two vernacular elements were studied, i) the patio (outside and inside interrelation), and ii) the façade materials (exposed stone) as vernacular elements in “Mediterranean modernist architecture”. The paper delineated the influence of the “Mediterranean modernist movement” on modern architecture in Lefkoşa in the 20th century. The findings show that there is influence by Modernist movement of architecture in other Mediterranean cities in Italy and Espain on the modern architecture in Lefkoşa. The results contribute evidence to promote our understanding regarding the modernist architecture in Lefkoşa. CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2017) 1(1), 10-23. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)10-23 www.ijcua.com Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction “Mediterranean Modernism movement” in architecture was one of the dialects between the presumed universalism of modernist architecture and the privacies of distinct places. It considered the vernacular building traditions of the Mediterranean region as a source for modernism in architecture in this region. This notion crystallized after the discourses between north and south of Europe about the modernism in architecture in the beginning of the last century (Lejeune, and Sabatino, 2010). The differences in opinions that had developed during the 1920s between the architects of the North and the South of Europe toward the role of technology and tradition continued to define postwar production. “Mediterranean modernist movement” in architecture came out as modernist architectural philosophy in south of Europe. Vernacular architecture started to be discussed as a source of modernism in the “Mediterranean modernism philosophy”. For example James Stirling’s mentioned in his essay on Regionalism and Modern Architecture (1957) that: “The most visually stimulating chapters of Kidder Smith’s recent book Italy Builds were not those on Italian Modern and Italian Renaissance, but that on the anonymous architecture of Italy”(Sabatino, 2010). Hence, Vernacular elements considered as the primary sources of modern architecture in the southern Mediterranean. The influence of this philosophy could be observed in modern residential buildings in the first and early second half of 20th century in Lefkoşa, in North Cyprus. The designs have been held some vernacular elements in the modern buildings specially the stone facades and in the interrelation between inside and outside of the buildings (Patio). The paper tries to answer following questions; whether or not the Cypriot modernist architecture was influenced by “Mediterranean modernism philosophy” in first half of 20th century? Whether or not, other external factors affected the modernism in the architectural design of residential buildings in that period? The paper aims to define the character of modern architecture houses between first and second half of 20th century in Lefkoşa. The study tries to demonstrate the similarity between AhmetVuralBahaedden’s design as North Cypriot pioneer in modern architecture and other Italian and Spanish design in the same periods. The paper hypothesize that if the “Mediterranean modernism” were influencing the architectural style in Lefkoşa after the first half of 20th century, then the introduction of vernacular elements in the residential buildings designed by ‘Ahmet VuralBahaeddin’ is partially or totally result of that influence. 2. Literature review 2.1. Modernist movement of Architecture With the end of nineteenth century and the beginning of twentieth century, because of Modern Movement in the societies of west Europe, architects started to leave past styles and began to work on a new form of architecture(Evans and Jeffery, 2005). Modernism in architecture focuses on Sullivan’s saying that “form follows function”, based on functional concerns. In this study the modern movements of architecture will be delineated to the first half of twentieth century. The first decade or so after the ‘World War I’ was a crucial and innovative time for architecture. The new movement became international after World War I, where consist the development of simple geometric figures and simple facades free from ornaments released from any historical references. Buildings were to be “machines for living,” reflecting the industrial revolution age (Le Corbusier, 1931).Consequently, Modernist movement in architecture had been crystallized as real movement. The best known of this movement were, between many, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier in France, and Mies Van der Rohe in Germany. Gropius was the founders of the ‘Bauhaus’ (1919-1933) were established in Dessau focused on philosophy of modernism in architecture (Magdalena, 2002). Gropius in ‘Bauhaus’ wanted to show a new consideration for technique and craft in all artistic world, and asked for re-assessment for art and craft characteristic of the medieval age, before art and manufacturing had diverted away. The Bauhaus was considering rationalization in design as well (Evans, and Jeffery, 2005). After World War II, this movement became more present in plain facade of high rise buildings with curtain walls in large houses. 2.1.1. General characteristic of Modernism in Architecture Le Corbusier, one of Modern Architecture’s pioneers in 1926 pointed his five points for new Architecture. One of the points was "free plan”, which focus on continuity, transparency of place. This point is one of the important points for theory of Modern Architecture. He pointed "free façade" as complementary to free plan and took in consideration interaction between interior and exterior, and their relation to nature as well. Those two points were very crucial in new idea of architecture. The other three points of new architecture, which Le Corbusier described, were: the "pilotis" which means the columns in French language, where allowing the garden to creep under the building and "the horizontal window “and "the roof garden" (Benton, 2007).

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This page is a summary of: The influence of Mediterranean modernist movement of architecture in Lefkoşa: The first and early second half of 20th century, January 2017, Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), DOI: 10.25034/1761.1(1)10-23.
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