What is it about?

Obesity and T2D are associated with the increased level of adipocytes derived FFA, proinflammatory cytokines and gram negative bacteria derived LPS, which causes inflammation through TLR and NLR signaling pathways. Innate immune receptors such as TLRs and NLRs play a significant role in pathogenesis of obesity mediated insulin resistance through induction of proinflammatory cytokines which further causes downregulation of IRS pathway.

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Why is it important?

Gut microbiota modulation with certain antibiotics has increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the inflammation through TLR and NF-kB pathway. Role of NOD1/NOD2 can also be studied in relation with gut microbiota and insulin resistance in pathogenesis of T2D. In future, TLRs and NLRs and gut microbiota targeted therapeutics can be developed in direction to treat the metabolic disorders like obesity and T2D.

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This page is a summary of: Understanding and Modulating the Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) and NOD Like Receptors (NLRs) Cross Talk in Type 2 Diabetes, Current Diabetes Reviews, May 2014, Bentham Science Publishers, DOI: 10.2174/1573399810666140515112609.
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