What is it about?

Medication adherence is a well-recognized problem in the management of patients requiring polypharmacy. Pharmacometabolomics is an emerging approach that may inform on medication use among persons with CKD. Self-reported use of 158 prescribed substances and 41 medication groups and measurements of 90 urinary drug metabolites from 4,885 GCKD study participants were evaluated. Accuracy and specificity were excellent, with high sensitivity for many cardiovascular drugs. Detection of drug metabolites of over-the-counter analgesics was high in comparison to their reported prescribed use. Pharmacometabolomics also revealed prescription patterns, including the recommended avoidance of combinations potentially causing serious adverse effects.

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Why is it important?

This study generates a comprehensive resource mapping self-reported medication use and urinary drug metabolite levels. Pharmacometabolomics is a useful approach to assess medication use and prescription patterns in persons with CKD.


While working on the study, we gained interesting insights into the individual drug use. That was exciting. Both for those urine metabolites where we found a large overlap with medication use and for those where we had spent a long time researching the causes of the discrepancies.

Fruzsina Kotsis

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Self-Reported Medication Use and Urinary Drug Metabolites in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) Study, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, June 2021, American Society of Nephrology,
DOI: 10.1681/asn.2021010063.
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