What is it about?
This review primarily discusses current understanding of the mechanisms concerning uremic toxins, chronic inflammation, arterial stiffening, and impaired cardiac function, and the therapeutic options to reduce arterial stiffness in patients with CKD.
Photo by Dan Meyers on Unsplash
Why is it important?
CKD frequently leads to chronic cardiac dysfunction. This complex relationship has been termed as cardiorenal syndrome type 4 or cardio-renal link. Despite numerous studies and reviews focused on the pathophysiology and therapy of this syndrome, the role of arterial stiffness has been frequently overlooked. In this regard, several pathogenic factors, including uremic toxins (i.e., uric acid, phosphates, endothelin-1, advanced glycation end-products, and asymmetric dimethylarginine), can be involved. Their effect on the arterial wall, direct or mediated by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, results in arterial stiffening and decreased vascular compliance. The increase in aortic stiffness results in increased cardiac workload and reduced coronary artery perfusion pressure that, in turn, may lead to microvascular cardiac ischemia. Conversely, reduced arterial stiffness has been associated with increased survival.
Read the Original
This page is a summary of: Arterial Stiffness in the Heart Disease of CKD, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, April 2019, American Society of Nephrology, DOI: 10.1681/asn.2019020117.
You can read the full text:
Anxiety, depression, chronic inflammation and aortic stiffness in Crohn's disease: the brain--gut--vascular axis.
Background: Patients with Crohn's disease have an increased aortic stiffness, a known cardiovascular risk factor. Anxiety, a key factor of the brain--gut axis in patients with Crohn's disease, is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, and is linked with aortic stiffening in other clinical settings. Objectives: Considering that depression is frequently linked to anxiety in Crohn's disease, we performed a mediation analysis to reveal the potential link between anxiety, depression and aortic stiffness in these patients. Methods: Multicentre observational cross-sectional study of 86 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 86 matched control individuals. The connections between anxiety, depression, disease duration, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), brachial and central SBP were tested using partial least squares structural equations modelling. Results: In patients with Crohn's disease, anxiety (path coefficient: 0.220, P = 0.01) and disease duration (path coefficient: 0.270, P = 0.02) were associated with aPWV that in turn was associated with brachial SBP (path coefficient: 0.184, P = 0.03). These associations were even stronger in patients with active disease. The connection between anxiety and aPWV was in part mediated by central SBP (indirect effect: 0.090, P = 0.01; indirect-to-total effect ratio: 41%) as well as, in a pilot substudy, by sympathetic hyperactivity. Anxiety and depression were highly correlated in patients with Crohn's disease. Consequently, results were confirmed when anxiety was substituted by depression. Conclusion: The connections of anxiety, depression and chronic inflammation with aPWV and SBP could suggest the first evidence of a brain--gut--vascular axis and new potential targets for therapy in patients with Crohn's disease.
Vascular consequences of inflammation: a position statement from the ESH Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function and the ARTERY Society.
Inflammation is a physiological response to aggression of pathogenic agents aimed at eliminating the aggressor agent and promoting healing. Excessive inflammation, however, may contribute to tissue damage and an alteration of arterial structure and function. Increased arterial stiffness is a well recognized cardiovascular risk factor independent of blood pressure levels and an intermediate endpoint for cardiovascular events. In the present review, we discuss immune-mediated mechanisms by which inflammation can influence arterial physiology and lead to vascular dysfunction such as atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening. We also show that acute inflammation predisposes the vasculature to arterial dysfunction and stiffening, and alteration of endothelial function and that chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis are accompanied by profound arterial dysfunction which is proportional to the severity of inflammation. Current findings suggest that treatment of inflammation by targeted drugs leads to regression of arterial dysfunction. There is hope that these treatments will improve outcomes for patients.
Increased carotid stiffness and remodelling at early stages of chronic kidney disease
Objective: Increased carotid stiffness and remodelling is reported in patients with moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with cardiovascular events. Here, we tested the hypothesis that carotid artery alterations start earlier, during mild CKD. Methods: Within the Paris Prospective Study 3, a large prospective observational survey of nonreferred people aged 50-75 who received an extensive health check-up, there were 294 participants with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of at least 45 and less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m (Stage 3A CKD), 840 participants with GFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m with proteinuria (Stage 2 CKD), 4666 participants with GFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m without proteinuria and 3317 individuals with GFR at least 90 ml/min per 1.73 m at study recruitment. Carotid artery measurements were performed using a high-resolution echotracking device. Results: Compared with patients with GFR at least 90 ml/min per 1.73 m, the carotid distensibility and strain progressively decreased (P for trend <0.0001), whereas carotid stiffness progressively increased (P for trend <0.0001) across GFR categories starting at early stage from GFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m without proteinuria. Higher Young's elastic modulus was observed only for Stage 3A CKD, whereas carotid internal diastolic diameter did not differ between groups. Conclusion: The large arterial stiffening starts early during CKD, even in participants with a very mild reduction in renal function.
The following have contributed to this page