What is it about?

We have developed a method for the controlled release of marine semiochemicals (pheromones, necromones, etc) into water over time. This method consists of mixing the semiochemical with a slow-dissolving polymer, which is then used to fill tubes ("emitters") of the proper length and diameter for the desired rate and duration of release. The method was tested using the sea lamprey and the corresponding pheromone, 3-ketopetromyzonol sulfate, using polyethylene glycol filled emitters.

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Why is it important?

This technique allows marine biologists and fisheries managers to readily investigate and apply modern knowledge of semiochemicals in a marine environment.


We have used this technique and variations in a number of different applications. Here, we have applied it to the sea lamprey both in controlled behavioral tests and in trapping. We have also applied the technique with shark repellents and with trout. In theory, it can be applied to any system where a marine organism responds to a chemical or olfactory cue.

Dr. James E Hanson
Seton Hall University

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This page is a summary of: A simple, cost-effective emitter for controlled release of fish pheromones: Development, testing, and application to management of the invasive sea lamprey, PLoS ONE, June 2018, PLOS,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197569.
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