What is it about?

In a survey conducted in 2014 and 2015, interviewers coded respondents as "male" or "female" based on the sounds of their voices. Transgender men who were coded as male tended to have better health than transgender men who were coded as female. Transgender women who were coded as female, on the other hand, tended to have worse overall health than transgender women who were coded as male.

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Why is it important?

These findings suggest that there seems to be an overall health disadvantage for people who are perceived to be women, including transgender women, cisgender (non-transgender) women, and transgender men who are perceived to be women.


We live in a time where our understanding of gender is rapidly changing. The surveys we use to track social and health patterns are adapting to these changes, but sometimes mistakes made along the way can be informative.

Danya Lagos
Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Hearing Gender: Voice-Based Gender Classification Processes and Transgender Health Inequality, American Sociological Review, September 2019, SAGE Publications,
DOI: 10.1177/0003122419872504.
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