What is it about?

This study investigated whether the Digital Demonstration would differently affect children's performance in two motor skills compared to a Live Demonstration. The motor skills were the horizontal jump and shoulder throwing with performance criteria described in the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2). We developed a digital model using Augmented Reality installed on a tablet computer compatible with the Android operating system specifically for this comparison.

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Why is it important?

We applied statistical test and found no significant performance differences based on demonstration exposure from Augment Reality (AR) versus live modeling. We propose that AR technology is a potential tool for demonstrating human movement, can be considered additional system to meet the needs of standardizing testing within motor development assessment instruments of this kind.


Future research might validate the digital models created in the present study with a higher number of motor skills executed by the models to more comprehensively address motor development assessment instruments such as the TGMD-2. Other possible research relates to evaluating the learner’s preference for digital models in AR compared with real human models, motor learning experiments involving practice periods to discern how digital demonstration compares with live demonstration, and investigations of whether there are specific benefits (e.g., reliability of repetition) to digital demonstrations in observational motor learning or differential effects of digital demonstrations for various populations of learners (e.g., adults, older adults, and clinical groups). Several different professional fields use demonstration in their scope of knowledge and may benefit from new applications of AR digital models, making further research work in this area a worthwhile enterprise.

Rodrigo Spinosa
Universidade Estadual de Londrina

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This page is a summary of: Comparing Live and Digital Augmented Reality Models for Demonstrating Two Motor Skills From the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition: TGMD-2, Perceptual and Motor Skills, January 2020, SAGE Publications,
DOI: 10.1177/0031512519900061.
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