What is it about?

The influential World Health Organisation’s 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion supported certain settings being nominated as unique social systems for enabling specific health promotion activity. These initially included a whole raft of proposed settings ranging from the micro to macro; these at the time mainly being hospitals, communities, schools, workplaces, cities, villages, islands and the home and family. Several other settings have since also been added to the list – which now include health‐promoting universities and health‐promoting prisons. Most of the mentioned settings have in more recent times being acknowledged in the nursing literature.

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Why is it important?

What has not yet surfaced in both the nursing and the general health promotion literature is that most settings can be linked as a whole, not just by their geographical location and proximity to each other, but also to the fact that they tend to follow a linear direction that ranges across the total lifespan. This article bridges that gap for all health practitioners.


The intention here is to develop a unique framework which combines the concepts of settings and lifespan where they are applied to health promotion. A critical examination and exploration of the existing health promotion literature related to both settings and lifespan has been undertaken. Viewing health promotion in the way that this framework proposes further assists in locating and clarifying the often confused and contested position of health promotion in nursing.

Dr Dean Whitehead
Flinders University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Before the cradle and beyond the grave: a lifespan/settings-based framework for health promotion, Journal of Clinical Nursing, May 2011, Wiley,
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03674.x.
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