What is it about?

Water heating systems are key components of commercial buildings. They produce a significant amount of greenhouse gases directly or indirectly in an urban area. The paper applies a triple bottom line approach to evaluate the performance of these systems.

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Why is it important?

This paper presents the findings of a territorial-wide survey on the performance of commercial electric, gas-fired, and oil-fired water heating systems. Architects, building designers, and facility managers can make use of our findings to design sustainable buildings and smart green cities.


Water heating systems are major stationary sources of pollutants in a city. Moreover, it is also a key building asset and requires a proper continuous monitoring and periodic maintenance for optimal performance. Unfortunately, there is scant literature reporting their in-situ performance. The paper addresses this important gap.

Professor W.M. To
Macao Polytechnic University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Energy, economic, and environmental performance of commercial water heating systems, Journal of Facilities Management, August 2014, Emerald, DOI: 10.1108/jfm-07-2013-0037.
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