What is it about?

In Heroines of the Ballot we add a new layer to the literature on the gender gap in politics. We unveil a systematic gender gap whereby women always perceive higher costs of voting than men.

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Why is it important?

The findings in Heroines of the Ballot are important for gender studies and for democratic theories. If women are more likely than men to perceive voting as a costly or cumbersome activity, the principle of political equality is compromised.


The gender gap in the perceived costs of voting that we identify in Heroines of the Ballot is attenuated only by education and widens with the presence of children and political interest. Thus, promoting education may also bring about an improvement in political equality.

Andrés Santana
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

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This page is a summary of: Heroines of the Ballot: The Gender Gap and the Costs of Voting, Social Politics International Studies in Gender State & Society, October 2019, Oxford University Press (OUP),
DOI: 10.1093/sp/jxz037.
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