What is it about?

To evaluate the ‘marginalization thesis’ which asserts that marginalized populations are more likely to participate in undeclared work, we analyse a 2013 Eurobarometer survey of eight Baltic Sea countries, namely four Western countries (Denmark, Finland, Germany and Sweden) and four post-Soviet countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland).

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Why is it important?

Finding that across both the Western and post-Soviet Baltic Sea countries, some marginalized populations (e.g. those having difficulties paying household bills, younger people) are significantly more likely to participate in undeclared work, and others are not (e.g. women, those with a high level of tax morality), a more nuanced and variegated understanding of the marginalization thesis is developed that is valid across both Western and post-Soviet Baltic Sea countries.


The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of recognising that not all marginalised populations are more likely to engage in undeclared work.

Professor Colin C Williams
University of Sheffield

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This page is a summary of: Evaluating the participation of marginalized populations in undeclared work in the Baltic Sea countries, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, September 2016, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/14782804.2016.1228524.
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