What is it about?

This study identifies what is the best technology for Sao Paulo: ethanol, gasoline, hybrid or electric car from the energy and CO2 emissions perspective.

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Why is it important?

Brazil is a worldwide leader of ethanol producer from sugar cane. The electricity in Brazil is dominated be hydropower (92%). Identify what the best technology from road transport in Brazil from de energy and CO2 emission perspective can be helpful.


The study works with five scenarios ( projected to 2030) and identifies the pros and cons from each scenario from CO2 emissions and energy consumption from Gasoline, ethanol and electricity.

Dr. Evaldo Costa
Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Interplay between ethanol and electric vehicles as low carbon mobility options for passengers in the municipality of São Paulo, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, January 2017, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2016.1276651.
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