What is it about?

Most cancer-related deaths (90%) come from cancer spreading and metastasis remains one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment. Research shows that S100A9, a protein linked with inflammation, plays a role in this cancer cell spread, especially in the lungs. So, we made a vaccine targeting this protein using materials from virus-like particles. In tests with mice, this vaccine successfully stopped the spread of cancer in the lungs. When used in mice with breast cancer and skin cancer, it reduced the growth of cancer in the lungs. The vaccination also prevented spreading of metastases after surgical removal of the main tumor. This vaccine works by decreasing the S100A9 protein, boosting helpful immune responses, and reducing harmful ones. Since this protein is found in many cancers and often indicates a worse outcome, our findings could help create new treatments to stop cancer from spreading.

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Why is it important?

Cancer spreading resulting in metastasis is a big challenge in treatment. The protein S100A9, which is connected to inflammation and often found in patients with advanced cancer, helps cancer cells settle and grow in the lungs. We made a vaccine targeting this protein using virus-like particles. In tests, this vaccine lowered the levels of this protein in mice and protected them from cancer spreading to their lungs. The vaccine also boosted the body's defenses and reduced harmful reactions. Since S100A9 is common in many cancers, our vaccine might help prevent cancer from spreading in many cases.

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Viral nanoparticle vaccines against S100A9 reduce lung tumor seeding and metastasis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, October 2023, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2221859120.
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