What is it about?
In a fluid system of particles interacting through attractive forces, particles having small momenta cannot homogeneously mix with particles having large momenta. Then, the particle distribution has a specific pattern that can be characterized as a fractal structure. The pattern is confirmed via exact solutions obtained from differential equations.
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Why is it important?
The particle distribution in a fluid system can be characterized by particle pairs that are classified into a group constituted by each pair that is two particles interacting in a bound state and the other group constituted by each pair that is two particles interacting in an unbound state. Particle pairs belonging to the former group contribute to physical cluster formation, and the existence of physical clusters allows the particle distribution to form a specific pattern that can be characterized as a fractal structure. With the formation of physical clusters, the fluctuation of density in the fluid can be developed near the liquid-vapor critical point. Exact solutions obtained from differential equations allow the above behavior to be confirmed.
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This page is a summary of: Effect of physical cluster formation on the behavior of correlation functions for a fluid system, AIP Advances, January 2022, American Institute of Physics, DOI: 10.1063/5.0066444.
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