What is it about?

Wheat bran dietary fiber (WBDF) has been reported to be responsible for the low quality of whole wheat flour products due to its destructive effect on the gluten matrix. Glutenin and gliadin are the major components of gluten protein and contribute to a proper gluten structure. In this study, the thermostability, surface hydrophobicity, fluorescence characteristics, free sulfhydryl contents, and molecular weight distributions of glutenin- and gliadin-rich fractions were determined after the addition of WBDF. The addition of WBDF to glutenin resulted in an increased surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content, as well as a red-shift of the fluorescence spectrum. However, the WBDF-modified gliadin fraction changed slightly mainly due to its spherical conformation. Size exclusion chromatography profiles revealed increasing soluble gliadin aggregates and decreasing high molecular weight glutenin fractions as a result of WBDF incorporation. The results from the thermostability analyses exhibited decreased weight loss and decomposition temperatures for both glutenin and gliadin proteins at high WBDF concentration. Our results suggest that changes in the gluten matrix caused by WBDF may largely rely on glutenin structure variation.

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Why is it important?

Fewer studies have focused on the changes in glutenin and gliadin fractions as a result of WBDF addition. Glutenin and gliadin are the most essential protein fractions to form a proper gluten matrix, which directly determines gluten properties. Therefore, we studied the influence of WBDF on glutenin and gliadin fractions.

Perspectives

WBDF yields a weaker and looser glutenin structure, while the gliadin protein structure was hardly affected owing to its spherical conformation. Therefore, changes in the gluten protein network induced by WBDF may be mostly due to the interactions of WBDF with glutenin.

Sen Ma
Henan University of Technology

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This page is a summary of: The thermal stability, structural changeability, and aggregability of glutenin and gliadin proteins induced by wheat bran dietary fiber, Food & Function, January 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c8fo01810c.
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